Data en América

Alfajor

2019.03.15 20:19 Tazik004 Alfajor

Subreddit dedicado a darle cariño al dulce de leche entre galletas. English speakers welcome!
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2013.01.01 17:27 Santos FC O Reino do Futebol

SubReddit do Santos Futebol Clube. [email protected] ao Reino do Futebol. ___________________________________________ Para uma melhor experiência, recomendamos usar a plataforma clássica em: old.reddit.com/SantosFC
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2012.08.29 04:20 YourMayansMayVanish Casa da Nação de mais de 45 Milhões de torcedores

SubReddit dedicado ao Flamengo e à maior torcida do Mundo! __________________________________________ Para uma melhor experiência utilize o estilo tradicional em: old.reddit.com/Flamengo
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2020.12.02 16:29 ezecorrea [Vendo] Comics varios!

(Pre-data: Si buscabas comics en ingles y te decepcionaste, no te vayas! En estos días voy a estar posteando mi colección de issues, mini-series, TPs y alguna que otra joyita más. Tengo varias cosas por lo que me va a tomar un poco mas de tiempo hacer el post con fotos y precios. Si estas muy manija mandame mp y te paso la lista de lo que voy a vender).

Ahora si, a lo que viniste. Resulta que me mudo y necesito sacarme de encima algunas cosas haciendo algo de guita al mismo tiempo. Estoy en Núñez, CABA. Me muevo seguido por laburo asique me puedo acercar si estas en CABA o cercanías. También puedo hacer envíos a cargo de comprador.
Después de confirmar, armo una publicación en Mercado Libre y compras por ahí. Todos los precios son charlables. Si llevas varias cosas hacemos combo con descuento.
Fotos: https://imgur.com/a/kAAb5qi
+Ovni Press
- Colección Imprescindibles #1 - 5. Civil War, Secret Wars, Spider-man: La muerte de los Stacy, Dinastía M y Hulk: Gris. : $4000
^^^ (Esta es una colección hermosa de algunas de las historias mas importantes del universo Marvel. Cada uno viene con su caja protectora blanca y metalizada . Si querés empezar a leer pero no sabes por donde empezar, estos son perfectos).
-Deadpool (2016, Duggan) #1 - 8. incluye los números del 1 al 13. : $3000 (incluyo de regalo el #4 de la línea de Posehn del 2013)
-Spider-Man/Deadpool (2016, Kelly) #1, 3 y 4. Incluye los números 1 al 2 y 5 al 8. : $1200 (si ya se, no tengo el #2).
-Deadpool y sus Mercenarios (2016, Bunn) #1. Incluye los números 1 y 2. : $500
-Viejo Logan (2016, Lemire) Vol. 1 - 2. Incluye los números del 1 al 8. : $1500
-Iron Man: Iron Metropolitan (2014, Gillen) Vol. 4. Incluye los números del 18 al 22. : $600
-Avengers: (2013, Hickman) #8, Planeta errante #1. Incluye los números 24, 25 y el Anual #1. : $500
+Auto-conclusivos:
-Deadpool vs Spiderman (Way). : $800
-Deadpool vs Carnage (Bunn). : $800
-Hawkeye vs Deadpool (Duggan). : $800
-Deadpool & Cable (Nicieza). Incluye el especial de Gwenpool. : $900
-Deadpool: Origen. (Incluye X-Men Origins: Deadpool, Deadpool 33.1 y Deadpool #1000). : $900
-Deadpool: El arte de la guerra (David). : $600
(Si te llevas varias cosas de las de arriba, incluyo de regalo la edición especial de Capitán América (Pilgrim) exclusiva de la Comic-Con Argentina 2016. Historia conectada al universo cinematográfico de Marvel que transcurre inmediatamente después de la peli Civil War).
+Amalgam. DC+Marvel (Todos juntos por $3000)
-Dark Claw adventures #1
-Super Soldier: Man of War #1
-Lobo the Duck #1
-Doctor StrangeFate #1
-Spider-Boy Team-Up #1
-DC/Marvel All Access # 3 (Batman vs Doctor Strange)
-DC/Marvel All Access #4 (Liga de la Justicia vs. X-Men)
+Aleta
-X-O Manowar Vol. 4: Vuelta a casa (Venditti). : $750

Creo que no me olvide de nada, cualquier cosa me preguntan sin problema ni compromiso.
Saludos!
submitted by ezecorrea to Mercadoreddit [link] [comments]


2020.11.26 13:08 RaquelRubia Tours en Sevilla de Raquel Rubia

Sevilla no es un sitio cualquiera… es un paraíso donde todas y cada una de las civilizaciones de la historia han querido quedarse. Conmigo vas a poder conocer todas y cada una aquellas historias que conforman el pasado y el presente de mi tierra y vas a ver con otros ojos por siempre cada uno de ellos de los sitios que visites. Goza mis tours en Sevilla de una manera exclusiva. Entrada preferente de conjuntos con guía oficial, asimismo te damos consejos para eludir las saturaciones en los monumentos pero visitados de Sevilla. Si eres de los que preferirían gozar de un guía turístico privado en Sevilla con el que descubrir la urbe, estás en el lugar conveniente. ¿Buscas actividades en Sevilla para conocerla de una forma diferente? Voy a hacer todo lo que resulta posible por ofrecerte el tour idóneo para ti.
Sevilla, indudablemente es una urbe que no te va a dejar indiferente. Un detalle curioso es la obsesión que tenía por las datas y memorizarlas. ¡Hola! Mi nombre es Raquel Rubia. Soy sevillana, soy Guía Oficial de Turismo de Andalucía. Titulada en Turismo y experta en Historia, dedico mi vida al que puede ser uno de los oficios más bonitos y enriquecedores que existen. ¡Descubre todos y cada uno de los secretos de la urbe con Guía Turística en Sevilla! La motivación que brota en lo que se refiere al aprendizaje mutuo me resulta súper esencial. Este artículo pretende ser una guía y un soporte para los visitantes de la urbe sobre los primordiales monumentos, iglesias, sitios y lugarés de interés qué ver en Sevilla. En la red y en las redes sociales podemos localizar en nuestros días un elevado número de guías turísticas de la urbe sobre qué cosas ver en Sevilla.
Te ofrecemos una visita guiada por el increíble interior de la Catedral de Sevilla que incluye subida a la Giralda, lugar desde el que gozarás de de las mejores vistas panorámicas de la urbe. Ubicado al lado de la citada catedral de Sevilla y el popular Distrito de Santa Cruz, este monumento realmente es un enorme complejo palaciego, con lo que asimismo es conocido como Reales Alcázares. Declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad, al lado del conjunto Catedral-Giralda y el Fichero de Indias, en mil novecientos ochenta y siete por la Unesco. Además de esto, para finalizar una fabulosa visita, podemos asimismo caminar sus fantásticos jardines donde asimismo encontraremos una enorme mezcla de estilos. La visita a los Reales Alcázares nos enseña el Palacio Real habitado más viejo de Europa. ¿Contiene el sepulcro de Colón sus auténticos restos? ¿Qué esencial personaje histórico subió a caballo a la Giralda? Vamos a visitar del mismo modo la Giralda, viejo alminar árabe, a pie subiendo por sus rampas históricas para contemplar una de las vistas más bonitas de la urbe. Puedes reservar una visita solo a este sitio o bien incluirla en cualquiera de los tours turísticos guiados que Raquel Rubia. Con unos orígenes musulmanes almohades (siglo XII), de los que son buena muestra el Patio de los Naranjos y la conocida torre Giralda, el que se transformaría en el mayor templo gótico del planeta es fruto de un ambicioso proyecto gestado en el siglo XV en estilo gótico tardío, y de las siguientes ampliaciones renacentistas de muy, muy alta calidad. Resumiendo, un compendio de arte y también historia que lúcida admiración.
Esta es otra de las visitas turísticas que no debes parar de hacer a tu paso por Sevilla, El Alcázar de Sevilla está declarado Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por la Unesco en mil novecientos ochenta y siete. La Casa de la Contratación (fundada por exactamente la misma Isabel), con la Sala de los Almirantes, donde una hermosa Virgen de los Nautas acoge bajo su mantón renacentista a marinos y gobernantes implicados en el descubrimiento y colonización de América. Sin olvidar sus extensos y frondosos jardines: para perderse (¡aun hay un laberinto!). La palabra Qasr desea decir fortaleza, castillo o bien casa fortificada en árabe. ¿Deseas conocer la historia del Palacio en empleo más viejo de Europa? En esta visita guiada vamos a conocer la historia y los secretos de una joya única en el planeta, resultado de todas y cada una de las ampliaciones de los Reyes durante su Historia. Conoce todo esto y considerablemente más de la mano de una guía oficial especialista en Patrimonio, Raquel Rubia.
La Catedral de Sevilla es uno de los monumentos de la urbe declarados Patrimonio de La Humanidad, construida sobre la vieja Mezquita Mayor almohade, restos de la mezquita que aún el día de hoy son perceptibles. Conoce todo esto y considerablemente más de la mano de un guía oficial especialista en Patrimonio. La Catedral de Sevilla, con su belleza sobria y atmosfera mística, maravilla a los miles y miles de turistas que de año en año la visitan. La Catedral de Sevilla es uno de los mayores templos católicos del planeta, el mayor de estilo gótico. Aconsejamos hacer una visita guiada para evitarlas.
En aquella temporada Sevilla conectaba España con las Indias y asimismo a este sitio llegaban los navíos cargados de oro y plata provenientes de América. Tampoco puede faltar a lo largo del tour un camino por el parque de María Luisa que, en su interior, cobija la conocida Plaza de España. Otro indispensable de Sevilla es el río Guadalquivir. El enorme puerto de Sevilla se ubicaba en esta especie de playa y se conectaba con la urbe mediante los accesos que existían en la Muralla, que quedaba tras la zona del Puerto. Áreas como el Arenal fueron cambiadas por entero presentando el aspecto que podemos gozar el día de hoy.
submitted by RaquelRubia to u/RaquelRubia [link] [comments]


2020.11.20 17:38 perfil_inevitable_28 Hasta 1.000 euros de multa por una foto Creative Commons: así pueden perseguirnos por la red y llevarnos a juicio por usar imágenes "libres"

Si vas a compartir algo a la red con licencia Creativa Commons, asegúrate de al menos elegir la licencia correcta y no darles oportunidad a trolls de copyright o patentes.
Si vas a usar una imagen con licencia Creativa Commons, chécate el tipo de licencia aplicada o podrías lamentarlo.
Por usar una foto "libre" de un árbol de navidad para un sencillo artículo acabó recibiendo una denuncia en la que el autor exigía más de 200 euros. La red está plagada de imágenes con licencia Creative Commons, que permite compartir la foto en otras publicaciones. Gracias a esto, muchos medios tenemos la posibilidad de ilustrar nuestros artículos de distintas formas. Pero no todas las licencias Creative Commons son iguales. Y hay quien lo aprovecha para llevar a juicio a aquellos que se equivocan a la hora de atribuir correctamente la autoría. Según describe Computer Weekly, únicamente en los Estados Unidos, el fotógrafo alemán Marco Verch ha demandado a individuos y empresas por un valor de 4,5 millones de dólares por utilizar alguna de sus múltiples imágenes con licencia Creative Commons.
No todas las licencias Creative Commons son igual de "libres"
Las imágenes publicadas por Verch pueden encontrarse en su perfil de Flickr, en su web personal y, hasta que fue bloqueado en 2018, en la Wikipedia. La gran mayoría están publicadas bajo la licencia Creative Commons CC-BY 2.0, una versión que data de 2004 e incluye un particular requisito de atribución, donde no sirve únicamente con nombrar al autor, también hay que cumplir unos requerimientos muy concretos:
Uso del título exacto, con enlace a la fuente original de la imagen.
Incluir el nombre completo del autor.
Enlace a la licencia Creative Commons CC-BY 2.0 específica.
Si ha sido editada o redimensionada, debe mencionarse explícitamente.
Simplemente con que uno de estos detalles no se cumpla, el autor tiene potestad para iniciar acciones legales y solicitar una indemnización. Una acción que lejos de ser algo puntual, se ha convertido en su práctica habitual. Con demandas que en casos como el del grupo de voluntarios holandés Kijk Haar!, alcanzan los casi 1.000 euros.
Trolls del copyright
Entre Marco Verch y su abogado, Richard Liebowitz, han iniciado más de 1.120 casos por copyright en los juzgados de EE.UU. Unas denuncias que pese a lo descabelladas que pueden parecer, son completamente legales y han terminado con algunos usuarios pagando las cantidades solicitadas. Según el abogado suizo Martin Steiger, Verch envía cada mes cientos de demandas.
Verch envía correos a los usuarios solicitando un abono por utilizar sus imágenes y pide un ingreso a través de su página de Paypal.me. El autor explica que en muchos casos ha llegado a acuerdos amistosos y que en "un gran número de casos renuncian o reducen considerablemente" su tarifa.
Para encontrar estas imágenes, el fotógrafo utilizado tecnología de reconocimiento de imágenes. Mediante software busca en qué otras páginas están repetidas sus imágenes y aprovecha para enviar el correo solicitando el ingreso. Según describe Computer Weekly, el caso de Verch más allá del simple hecho de solicitar una recompensa por no utilizar correctamente la licencia Creative Commons. Y es que el fotógrafo ni siquiera sería el autor material, externalizando a empresas como Upwork o directamente fotógrafos individuales de Europa del Este o América Latina.
"Desde el punto de vista estrictamente técnico, la actuación es impecable"
"Es un poco complicado. De entrada la primera tendencia es a evitar tener problemas", explica David Maeztu, abogado de 451.legal experto en derecho y tecnología. "El problema está que te está buscando las cosquillas con la atribución. En España la atribución es un derecho, pero no una obligación. La obligación viene impuesta por la licencia". "Lo que reconoce la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual es el reconocimiento a la autoridad. Si yo te lo pido tienes que reconocerme. La licencia hace ejercicio de este derecho. Cuando usas la licencia tienes que cumplir los términos de la misma y por lo tanto indicarlo", apunta Maeztu. "El problema es que las cantidades que se piden están, a mi juicio, desproporcionadas para el daño moral que se produce". "Jurídicamente, desde el punto de vista estrictamente técnico, la actuación es impecable. En el sentido que es adecuado. Otra cosa es que nos parezca bien o mal o que se esté generando un negocio a partir de un abuso", señala el abogado. "Si luego las fotos que se están reclamando están hechas por un tercero, el autor va a ser otro. No el que licencia. La autoría es un derecho moral, irrenunciable e inalienable". "La actuación es un poco maliciosa, por decirlo de alguna manera. Por utilizar licencias catalogadas como libres, con cláusulas que no están adaptadas y donde se aprovechan debilidades. Hemos tenido problemas con fotos utilizadas de gente que ha reclamado en Austria. Lo que te llega a España es la reclamación de allí, con una norma y un funcionamiento distinto a España y con el procedimiento prácticamente cerrado que te deja muy poco margen para poder sustanciar una oposición. Hay gente que se está aprovechando de todo esto y hay que tener cuidado", concluye Maeztu.
Fuente: Xataka https://www.xataka.com/legislacion-y-derechos/1-000-euros-multa-foto-creative-commons-asi-pueden-perseguirnos-red-llevarnos-a-juicio-usar-imagenes-libres?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+xataka2+%28Xataka%29
submitted by perfil_inevitable_28 to espanol [link] [comments]


2020.11.16 03:52 polosv Internet del dinero - segundo ensayo

Altcoins

De acuerdo con las estadísticas de capitalización del cripto-mercado, existen más de 5000 criptomonedas en existencia hoy en día y más de 20,000 diferentes tipos de mercados. Bitcoin es el más viejo y popular y todo lo demás es considerado altcoin. El término se refiere a cualquiera de los miles de criptomonedas existentes que apuntan a trabajar al lado de bitcoin o están compitiendo por el dominio total.
Bitcoin, la creación de Satoshi, ha existido por más de 11 años y ahora existen aproximadamente 5,098 criptomonedas alternativas (altcoins) que trabajan en paralelo a la dicha creación de Satoshi. Los historiadores de criptomonedas consideran ampliamente la red Namecoin como la primera altcoin y que el término "altcoin" fue presuntamente descrito por primera vez por el desarrollador Andrew Chow.
Namecoin fue lanzado el 18 de abril de 2011, y el proyecto apunta a decentralizar el registro de dominios. Entre 2011 y 2014 (antes del boom de las criptomonedas) el número de lanzamiento de altcoins empezó a crecer exponencialmente. Después de Namecoin, los usuarios de bitcoin presenciaron el nacimiento de Ripple, Litecoin, Peercoin, Feathercoin, Mastercoin, Counterparty y Unobtainium.
Hoy en día hay miles de monedas digitales que han utilizado el codebase de Bitcoin y los desarrolladores han cambiado algunos detalles menores con monedas como einsteinium, litecoin, dash, zcash y novacoin. También hay forks (bifurcación en inglés) de Ethereum (ETH) con redes como Ubiq, Ethereum Classic y Wanchain. Bytecoin tiene un codebase único y también ha experimentado un número considerable de forks incluyendo monero, boolberry y electroneum.
El aumento dinámico en el número de criptomonedas en circulación no cambia el hecho de que en numerosos análisis, Bitcoin, siendo el más difundido en la conciencia pública, por aparentar ser el más confiable. Se puede hablar de la volatilidad de las tasas de Bitcoin en comparación con las monedas tradicionales y otros instrumentos financieros. Además, se tiene que tomar en cuenta las tasas de retorno y el riesgo relacionado con la inversión en criptomonedas.
Aplicabilidad de las criptomonedas en las finanzas Las criptomonedas han sido discutidas y debatidas durante mucho tiempo, pero hasta recientemente están saliendo a la luz como herramientas financieras que pueden ser accesibles y útiles para más que solo los conocedores acérrimos. Las criptomonedas tienen el potencial de permitir el crecimiento social y económico en todo el mundo, incluso en los países en desarrollo, al ofrecer un acceso más fácil al capital y a los servicios financieros.
Las criptomonedas y Bitcoin en particular tienen una calidad altamente utilitaria, pero también disruptiva que ha comenzado a interferir lenta, pero constantemente con la forma en que funciona el sistema financiero tradicional.

Bitcoin como acelerador de la innovación en las finanzas

Desde que Bitcoin salió a la luz en 2008, y se generaron las primeras monedas, ha sido visto como un acelerador de la innovación sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo, las siguientes son algunas razones por la cual Bitcoin y las criptomonedas pueden servir y ya actualmente están siendo de utilidad para acelerar la innovación a nivel global:
  1. Grandes oportunidades para países con poca banca. Más de un tercio de la población mundial no tiene acceso a servicios bancarios básicos que puedan ayudarlos en caso de una crisis financiera personal: préstamos, cuentas corrientes y la lista puede continuar. Estas personas, que en la mayoría de los casos ya se encuentran en desventaja financiera, suelen recurrir a prácticas crediticias dudosas y peligrosas. La tasa de interés de estas prácticas es todo menos justa, lo que en consecuencia genera más inestabilidad entre las personas que solicitaron el préstamo. Aquí es donde entran las criptomonedas con su alta volatilidad y facilidad de uso. En la actualidad existen muchas aplicaciones y programas que facilitan el uso de las criptomonedas y las acercan a un público más amplio. Un beneficio adicional del uso de criptomonedas es que está completamente descentralizado, por lo que el comercio se puede realizar libremente a través de las fronteras. El uso de la tecnología facilitará una revolución financiera que dejará a todos más conectados, empoderados y habilitados financieramente.
  2. Bajos costos de transacción. Debido a que las criptomonedas y blockchain no necesitan un edificio físico real para existir, los costos asociados con su transacción son mínimos. No es necesario que se paguen los salarios de los empleados, las facturas de servicios públicos o el alquiler, por lo que estos ahorros se transforman naturalmente en tarifas de transacción bajas. Esto, a su vez, alienta a más y más personas a confiar en estas nuevas herramientas financieras y comenzar a realizar transacciones, lo que permite que la economía mundial esté más entrelazada.
  3. Mayor transparencia de las transacciones. Dado que todas las transacciones de blockchain y criptomonedas están automatizadas y digitalizadas, todas se rastrean en un libro mayor distribuido. La mejor parte es que no puede ser manipulado ni por personas ni por empresas, lo que disminuye en gran medida el riesgo de fraude y corrupción. Esto significa que los países subdesarrollados también tienen mayores posibilidades de entrar en el juego de las transacciones financieras e impulsar su propia economía y perspectivas sociales. Es más, los ciudadanos podrán realizar un seguimiento de dónde se orientarán los fondos estatales y, por lo tanto, tendrán voz y voto dentro de su propio clima político.
  4. Más poder para los emprendedores. Nunca ha habido un momento más próspero para hacer negocios que ahora, en el sentido de que la tecnología blockchain y las criptomonedas pueden ayudar a los emprendedores a recibir pagos en más monedas. Por ejemplo tenemos a BitPesa, que es una empresa que ayuda a los propietarios de negocios en África a realizar transacciones financieras con empresas europeas, americanas y asiáticas. El objetivo es ayudar a las pequeñas y medianas empresas de todo el mundo a obtener una mejor cobertura financiera y una conexión financiera liberada con el resto del mundo.
Solo será cuestión de tiempo hasta que estas criptomonedas encuentren definitivamente un camino en nuestras vidas, dándoles forma para mejor, con el crecimiento económico y la inclusión en mente. Millones de personas ahora tendrán la oportunidad de invertir, enviar dinero a través de las fronteras, ahorrar dinero y comenzar un negocio gracias a las increíbles posibilidades que brindan las criptomonedas.

La cadena de bloques como elemento de innovación y motor de la cuarta revolución industrial

Blockchain ha sido llamado un pilar de la Cuarta Revolución Industrial, comparándolo con tecnologías como la máquina de vapor e Internet que desencadenaron revoluciones industriales anteriores. Tiene el poder de alterar los modelos económicos y comerciales existentes y puede resultar particularmente valioso en las economías de mercados emergentes. Según los expertos, blockchain también es muy prometedor como método para combatir la corrupción, especialmente en América Latina y el Caribe, donde una mayor penetración de teléfonos inteligentes puede facilitar la adopción de nuevas tecnologías.
La corrupción tiene un impacto desproporcionado sobre los pobres y los más vulnerables, aumentando los costos y reduciendo el acceso a los servicios, incluida la salud, la educación y la justicia, según el Banco Mundial. La corrupción también obstaculiza la inversión, con los consiguientes efectos sobre el crecimiento y el empleo. Según una encuesta de Transparencia Internacional, más de la mitad de los latinoamericanos dijeron que su gobierno no está abordando la corrupción, y una de cada tres personas que había utilizado un servicio público en los últimos 12 meses dijo que tuvo que pagar un soborno.
En América Latina y el Caribe, solo la mitad de los adultos tiene acceso a servicios bancarios, sin embargo, el 90% de los adultos no bancarizados tiene un teléfono móvil. A medida que la penetración de los teléfonos inteligentes continúa creciendo, la popularidad de las monedas virtuales también está creciendo. En Brasil, algunas empresas y tiendas minoristas aceptan monedas virtuales como forma de pago. Colombia también está aumentando su presencia en el mercado de las criptomonedas en América Latina, al igual que Perú. También en el ámbito local, en El Salvador, la aldea El Zonte, que cuenta con acceso limitado a bancos y a servicios financieros se ha hecho un curioso experimento: implementar el uso del bitcoin como moneda de curso en la zona. Desde tiendas de alimentación y transporte, prácticamente todo se sustenta en la criptomoneda.
El Banco Mundial también está trabajando en el uso de blockchain para brindar más transparencia a las cadenas de suministro. Por ejemplo, blockchain podría alentar a los agricultores y a los intermediarios que se interponen entre las granjas y los molinos a ingresar más datos sobre los productos a medida que avanzan por la cadena.
Esta Cuarta Revolución Industrial puede ayudar a acelerar el progreso hacia el desarrollo ayudando a prevenir el fraude y la corrupción. Sin embargo, la tecnología se encuentra en sus primeras etapas de desarrollo y será necesario abordar serios desafíos y riesgos, tanto técnicos como regulatorios, antes de lograr una adopción generalizada. Pero el camino está abierto de par en par.

Sistemas Abiertos a la Innovación y a la Inclusión

La comunidad tecnológica ha estado hablando mucho de "abierto" estos días. Tal vez sea porque la mayoría de nosotros sabemos que la apertura impulsa la innovación al mismo tiempo que fomenta nuevos mercados, especialmente en lo que respecta a la nueva tecnología.
Si bien es fácil poner algo de código en GitHub, etiquetarlo como "abierto" y terminarlo, estar abierto significa más que eso. Abierto puede significar una comunidad de desarrollo colaborativa y acogedora, el uso de licencias de código abierto responsable, la adopción de un modelo de gobierno abierto y el uso de estándares abiertos que crean ecosistemas abiertos, diversos y prósperos.
Existe una red tan compleja de procesos arcaicos, sistemas heredados e incentivos desalineados dentro y entre empresas dentro de la cadena de valor de una industria, que si tiene alguna posibilidad de innovar, realmente necesita la capacidad de orquestar y mover a múltiples partes interesadas. , en múltiples organizaciones, al mismo tiempo, por las razones correctas, de una manera no amenazante.

Tragedia de los bienes comunes

En economía, la tragedia de los bienes comunes se refiere a una situación en la que un bien común se elimina en un sistema de recursos compartidos debido a que los individuos de ese sistema se comportan de acuerdo con sus propios intereses económicos. Un ejemplo comúnmente citado es el de los humanos que destruyen el medio ambiente en pos de sus intereses económicos, lo que a la larga, potencialmente empeora la situación de todo el sistema.
Una tragedia del escenario de los bienes comunes podría surgir en Bitcoin si los mineros o usuarios, actuando en su propio interés económico en respuesta a recompensas de bloque más bajas, alteran su comportamiento de maneras que no benefician a la red en su conjunto. Algunos ejemplos pueden incluir: Algunos mineros pueden dejar de minar definitivamente. Si participan menos mineros, los tiempos de confirmación de transacciones podrían aumentar, haciendo que la red sea más lenta, lo que podría reducir el valor de la red.
Es difícil predecir qué sucederá exactamente a medida que Bitcoin se acerque a su parada dura de 21 millones. El resultado será un estudio de caso en teoría de juegos, con el protocolo subyacente de Bitcoin y las fuerzas del mercado en juego.
Afortunadamente, la tragedia del problema de los comunes probablemente tenga solución para Bitcoin. Por un lado, tenemos bastante aviso previo de que la economía minera podría ser un problema a medida que disminuye la recompensa por bloque. El mismo Satoshi Nakamoto insinuó esta realidad en 2010:
En unas pocas décadas, cuando la recompensa sea demasiado pequeña, la tarifa de transacción se convertirá en la principal compensación para los nodos. Estoy seguro de que en 20 años habrá un volumen de transacciones muy grande o no habrá volumen.
Los miembros de la comunidad ya han presentado posibles soluciones al problema de cómo financiar la seguridad de la red en el futuro, incluido el uso de contratos de garantía. A medida que la red de Bitcoin crezca en tamaño y valor, habrá amplios incentivos para ser proactivos al abordar estos problemas de frente.
La reciente adopción de SegWit, cuyo objetivo es mejorar la escalabilidad de la red, muestra que el conjunto diverso de partes interesadas en la red de Bitcoin pueden colaborar en asuntos que mejoran el ecosistema. Si la comunidad de Bitcoin puede continuar realizando mejoras proactivamente en lugar de esperar a que se desarrolle una crisis, continuará creciendo como una clase de activo legítimo e incluso podría convertirse en una reserva de valor de primer nivel.

Conclusiones

La era actual está bajo la revolución industrial llamada cuarta revolución industrial que se alimenta del desarrollo de tecnologías digitales. El proceso de digitalización que surgió con la Industria 4.0 y se aceleró con el tiempo llevó a ciertas tecnologías nuevas como Internet de las cosas y Big Data. En este proceso, blockchain como facilitador de la 4ta revolución industrial surge como una aplicación de bitcoin que es la criptomoneda. Bitcoin es un activo financiero que atrae la atención con una alta capitalización de mercado y una demanda creciente. Es difícil predecir si la criptomoneda será la moneda principal del futuro. Aunque hay competidores, bitcoin sigue dominando el mercado de las criptomonedas.
Los entusiastas de Blockchain creen que es probable que los casos de uso de la tecnología se vuelvan comunes en el sector financiero en la próxima década. Por otro lado, también hay voces conservadoras que nos recuerdan las tecnologías sobrevaloradas y el hecho de que las criptomonedas (como BitCoin) son las únicas aplicaciones actualizadas de blockchains a gran escala. Queda por ver lo que ocurrirá a medio y largo plazo. Por el momento, los casos de uso de blockchain enumerados brindan un terreno fértil para los innovadores del sector financiero, incluidas las empresas FinTech e InsurTech.
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2020.11.12 11:04 RaquelRubia Raquel Rubia, guía turística en Sevilla

Raquel Rubia, guía turística en Sevilla

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Sevilla no es un sitio cualquiera… es un paraíso donde todas y cada una de las civilizaciones de la historia han querido quedarse. Conmigo vas a poder conocer todas y cada una aquellas historias que conforman el pasado y el presente de mi tierra y vas a ver con otros ojos por siempre cada uno de ellos de los sitios que visites. Goza Sevilla de una manera exclusiva. Entrada preferente de conjuntos con guía oficial, asimismo te damos consejos para eludir las saturaciones en los monumentos pero visitados de Sevilla. A que podamos verdaderamente comprenderlos contribuye de forma significativa el guía oficial de visita guiada en Sevilla, ¡de ahí que creo que puedo hacerte gozar mucho de tu camino por Sevilla! Que te sumerjas en la urbe por medio de una visita adaptada exclusiva y en privado, adaptándonos a tus gustos, a tus inquietudes, horarios y también idioma.

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Sevilla, indudablemente es una ciudad que no te va a dejar indiferente. Un detalle curioso es la obsesión que tenía por las datas y memorizarlas. ¡Hola! Mi nombre es Raquel Rubia. Soy sevillana, soy Guía Oficial de Turismo de Andalucía. Titulada en Turismo y experta en Historia, dedico mi vida al que puede ser uno de los oficios más bonitos y enriquecedores que existen. ¡Descubre todos y cada uno de los secretos de la urbe con Guía Turístico en Sevilla! Por norma general, quien escoge visitar Sevilla lo hace para dos días o bien 3. Este artículo pretende ser una guía y un soporte para los visitantes de la urbe sobre los primordiales monumentos, iglesias, sitios y lugares de interés qué ver en Sevilla. ¡Conóceme y descubre de mi mano una de las urbes más bonitas del planeta!

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La Giralda, el Patio de los Naranjos y la Capilla Real forman el conjunto monumental de la Catedral, declarada Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco en mil novecientos ochenta y siete. Ubicado junto a la citada catedral de Sevilla y el popular Distrito de Santa Cruz, este monumento realmente es un gran complejo palaciego, con lo que también es conocido como Reales Alcázares. Consulta mi tour de las Tres Culturas; donde visitaremos La Catedral de Sevilla, el distrito de Santa Cruz y el el Alcázar de Sevilla, que es el palacio real más viejo de Europa todavía en empleo. También otros monarcas como Isabel la Católica o bien Carlos V añadieron su gusto al Alcázar de Sevilla. Es una de las visitas preferidas de los visitantes, combinación perfecta que ayuda a comprender el pasado milenario de esta ciudad. Lo más destacable: el exótico palacio mudéjar de Pedro I el Atroz, el palacio gótico construido por Alfonso X “El sabio” y los espléndidos jardines históricos y botánicos. Visitaremos del mismo modo la Giralda, viejo minarete árabe, a pie subiendo por sus rampas históricas para contemplar una de las vistas más bonitas de la urbe. Puedes reservar una visita sólo a este sitio o bien incluirla en cualquiera de los tours turísticos guiados que Raquel Rubia. La Catedral y Giralda de Sevilla están declaradas Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por la Unesco en 1987. Resumiendo, un compendio de arte y también historia que despierta admiración.

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Raquel Rubia, tu guía turístico para Sevilla, te acompañará en tan señalada visita turística explicándote todos y cada uno de los detalles de este renombrado monumento, sus características históricas primordiales y más de una simpática anécdota. El alcázar (palacio fortificado) maravilla a los visitantes con la sorprendente originalidad y belleza del Palacio mudéjar de Pedro I, la construcción que atrae todas las miradas, y donde se han rodado numerosas películas. Sin olvidarnos de sus extensos y frondosos jardines: para perderse (¡aun hay un laberinto!). La palabra Qasr desea decir fortaleza, castillo o casa fortificada en árabe. Estos fantásticos palacios han hospedado a reyes y gobernantes del califato Omeya, del Imperio Almohade, del reino de Castilla y después de España. Además conocerás los escenarios donde se rodaron escenas de la popular y famosa serie Juego de Tronos. Conoce todo esto y considerablemente más de la mano de una guía oficial experto en Patrimonio, Raquel Rubia, en su tour Alcázar de Sevilla.

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¿Quieres conocer la historia de la Catedral gótica más grande del mundo? Además vas a conocer los secretos que esconde el tercer templo en dimensiones de toda la cristiandad. Allá vamos a poder gozar de unas vistas panorámicas únicas en la ciudad. Disfruta el tour de La Catedral de Sevilla, con su belleza sobria y atmósfera mística, fascina a los miles de turistas que todos los años la visitan. El acceso para visitantes se encuentra en la fachada sur, la que mira al Fichero de Indias: Puerta de San Cristóbal o del Príncipe. Es una visita independiente. Es un monumento susceptible de masificaciones.

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Si quieres una visita diferente, apuesta por mi tour barrio del Arenal de Sevilla. En aquella temporada Sevilla conectaba España con las Indias y también a este lugar llegaban los barcos cargados de oro y plata provenientes de América. Aprovecharemos esta parada para charlar de cómo se vivió en Sevilla en tiempos de al-Ándalus y pondremos el foco en de qué forma ha influido en esta ciudad el legado de la cultura musulmana. ¿Deseáis ver la testera de la Torre del Oro o la plaza de toros de La Maestranza? Estáis en el lugar conveniente. Además, las vistas del distrito de Triana desde el puente de San Telmo os encantarán. Como su propio nombre indica, la zona de El Arenal, fue siempre y en toda circunstancia una enorme extensión cubierta de arena dorada que formaba una parte de la ribera del río a su paso por Sevilla. Áreas como el Arenal fueron cambiadas por entero presentando el aspecto que podemos gozar hoy.
De acuerdo con diversos estudios, hacer turismo ofrece múltiples beneficios para la salud tanto física como mental. Lo más interesante es que estos beneficios tienden a extenderse por semanas después de que el viaje ha terminado. Lamentablemente, la depresión es un problema que afecta a millones de personas en este país. Semeja obvio señalar que una persona que proceda de una urbe contaminada admirará una ciudad limpia y ordenada, y quizás, aun, el turista llegue a tener más cuidado a partir de entonces. Conocer gente de otra cultura, que nos aporte otra visión de la vida y nos haga ampliar miras en nuestro periplo vital es un claro beneficio del turismo en lo personal. Cuando hacemos turismo, en muchas ocasiones vemos gente pobre y conocemos las circunstancias de bastante gente en el planeta, que por el mero hecho de vivir en dichos lugares, están en la pobreza. Además, nuestra forma de ser a lo largo de un viaje difiere de la de nuestra vida rutinaria, lo que te permitirá conocer mejor a tu pareja. Abrir tu psique también quiere decir arriesgarte a hacer cosas diferentes y vencer miedos; viajar te impulsará a llevar tus capacidades a otros niveles.
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2020.11.06 12:03 remote-enthusiast Collected 60 jobs, enjoy!

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
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2020.10.26 00:43 guillepaez Resumen Semanal de Noticias IX

Hola y bienvenidos al Resumen Semanal de noticias número 9. Damos las gracias a GeneracionX por esos cafecitos de la semana pasada.
Si no quieren leer acá está el video en youtube
Arrancamos con el SÁBADO de la Lealtad Peronista:
DOMINGO:
LUNES:
MARTES:
Si les está gustando este resumen no se olviden de suscribirse y dejar un like.
MIÉRCOLES:
JUEVES:
VIERNES:
Cerramos el resumen con los números de la pandemia:
Como es costumbre queremos dar las gracias por toda la buena onda que nos mandan. Si quieren darnos una mano pueden hacernos una donación mediante cafecitos o simplemente compartiendo este video que eso nos ayuda a crecer. Muchas gracias por todo.
Chao.
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2020.10.08 12:46 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 12/12: São Paulo

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 12/12: São Paulo (State: São Paulo), founded in 1930

State rivals: Corinthians, Palmeiras, Santos

Stadium: Morumbi

Mascot: Saint Paul

Major achievements: 3 Intercontinental/Club World Cup (1992, 1993, 2005), 3 Copa Libertadores (1992, 1993, 2005), 6 Brazilian Leagues (1977, 1986, 1991, 2006, 2007, 2008), 1 Supercopa Libertadores (1993)

State League titles: 21 (Against Corinthians' 30, Palmeiras' 23, Santos' 22)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO SÃO PAULO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
São Paulo FC, the biggest Brazilian club
São Paulo seems to be the only team in Brazil that has all the major ingredients that make a team, the biggest: lots of international and domestic titles, big fanbase, big stadium, big idols and historical teams. Clubs like Santos or Flamengo come close, but lack one or other ingredient - that's why São Paulo, the only 3x Club World champion and the youngest of the Big12, is considered the biggest club in Brazil!
Brazilian Club International titles Domestic titles Total
São Paulo 12 6 18
Santos 8 9 17
Flamengo 5 12 17
Palmeiras 3 14 17
Cruzeiro 7 10 17
Corinthians 4 11 15
Grêmio 6 8 14
Not only São Paulo leads the title rank, but also the runner-up rank, as you can see below:
Brazilian Club International runner-ups Domestic runner-ups Total
São Paulo 8 8 16
Cruzeiro 9 7 16
Palmeiras 6 5 11
Santos 2 9 11
Internacional 2 8 10
Grêmio 6 4 10
In the entire South America, São Paulo is only behind Boca Juniors and Independiente in international trophies:
South American club Intercontinental/Club World Cup Copa Libertadores Others Total
Boca Juniors 3 6 9 18
Independiente 2 7 5 14
São Paulo 3 3 6 12
River Plate 1 4 5 10
However, you have to consider that in Argentina there are only 5-7 big clubs (Boca, River, Independiente, San Lorenzo, Racing, Estudiantes, Vélez), while in Brazil there are at least 12, making things more difficult to São Paulo.
São Paulo is also the only Brazilian club to win 3x the Intercontinental/Club World Cup, which is considered their biggest feat:
Event Match Goals
Intercontinental Cup 1992 São Paulo 2-1 Barcelona Raí (2x), Stoichkov
Intercontinental Cup 1993 São Paulo 3-2 Milan Palhinha, Cerezo, Müller, Massaro, Papin
Club World Cup 2005 São Paulo 1-0 Liverpool Mineiro
The beginnings
São Paulo was founded in 1930, and accepted people from any origin, social class or ethnicity since their early days. They won their first trophy in 1931, a State League title, led by Friedenreich - who scored 103 goals in 5 years at the club. After a few fusions with other clubs, the team would begin to really shine in the 1940s.
The 1940s: five State League titles
Due to Brazil's huge size and weak infrastructure, there wasn't a National League until 1959 - until then and even afterwards, the State Leagues were the main tournaments.
In the 1940s, São Paulo won 5 of them. At this time, the club also received the nickname "The Dearest Team", because they dared to bring and show a huge São Paulo State Flag in the inauguration of the Pacaembu stadium, in front of 70.000 spectators, including the hated Brazilian dictator Getúlio Vargas.
Leonidas da Silva
The first big idol of the club was Leonidas, present in the 5 State League titles in the 1940s. The Black Diamond had played in two World Cups (1934, 1938) and joined the club in 1942. He scored 140 goals in 212 matches, and retired from football in this same club, in 1950.
It was in this decade that São Paulo gained the respect of the best teams of the city, Palmeiras and Corinthians, who already had 10 State League titles on their account.
In 1943, during a State League draw, a Corinthians' director said that the draw was unnecessary: he flipped a coin and said that if it falls head Palmeiras will be champions, if it falls tail it will be Corinthians. After being questioned about São Paulo, he replied, laughing: "if the coin stands, it will be São Paulo, if it stops in the air, it will be Portuguesa". São Paulo were the champions, and had a huge coin standing on their car during the celebrations at night.
The Steamroller dominated the decade, got the respect of Corinthians and Palmeiras and were now considered a rival. These 3 teams received the nickname of Iron Trio from the media.
1950s-1970: construction of Morumbi, the biggest private stadium in the world
The club destined all their money in the 1950s to the construction of their stadium Morumbi, which would be the biggest private stadium in the world. Without funds to build a strong team, they only won two State Leagues in this period (1953, 1957), with the legendary Hungarian coach Béla Guttmann commanding them in the 1957 title, with 1950 World Cup Golden Ball winner Zizinho on their side.
While São Paulo built their stadium, a young kid named Pelé arrived at Santos, and gave no chance to them, or to the Iron Trio teams in the 1960s.
1970s: back in the game
In this decade, São Paulo won their first Brazilian League title in 1977, and also 3 State Leagues (1970, 1971, 1975), besides one Copa Libertadores runner-up (1974), and one Brazilian League runner-up (1973).
Curiously enough, the 1977 São Paulo wasn't a great team, and nobody bet on them to become Brazilian champions. They beat Atlético Mineiro in the final, on the penalties, after two 0-0 ties. São Paulo missed their first two penalties, but managed to overcome Atlético, who sent three shots away. No São Paulo player was elected to the League's Best XI.
The São Paulo players who stood out in this decade were: Gérson, World Cup champion in 1970, Pedro Rocha, elected to the League's Best XI in 1973, Mirandinha, elected to the League's Best XI in 1973 and called to the 1974 World Cup, Waldir Peres, excellent goalkeeper who won the League Golden Ball in 1975 and played in 3 World Cups (1974, 1978, 1982), Chicão, centre-back who played 312 matches for São Paulo in the 1970s and got called to the 1978 World Cup, and Serginho Chulapa, the club's greatest topscorer, who scored 242 goals in 399 matches for São Paulo between 1973-1982, and played in the 1982 World Cup as a starter, after Careca's injury.
1980s: State dominance
In the 1980s, São Paulo watched their rivals Palmeiras and Santos struggle, as they took home 5 State League titles (1980, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1989).
But it was in the 1986 Brazilian League that São Paulo proved their worth. Led by Careca, they ended the 1st stage undefeated (7W-3D). On the second stage, they kept the good shape, with only 2 defeats in 16 matches, and with 3 wins scoring 5 goals or more.
On the knock-out stage, São Paulo first met Inter de Limeira in the ro16, the current São Paulo State League champions. São Paulo lost the 1st leg 1-2, but gave a 3-0 back in the return leg, with Careca scoring once on each match.
In the quarter-finals, they would play Fluminense, and lost the 1st leg 0-1. In the 2nd leg, Careca opened the score at '67 with this crazy goal, and Müller scored the second ten minutes later.
In the semi-finals, they would face América, a traditional team from Rio de Janeiro, that was big in the old days. América's goalkeeper worked hard, but at '80, Careca finally scored with this shot. In the return leg, Careca scored this genius lob goal from inside the box. The team held América's pressure, and left with a 1-1 tie and the spot in the big final.
The big final would be against Guarani. In the 1st leg at the Morumbi, the topscorers of the tournament, Evair and Careca, scored once each, and the match ended 1-1. The 2nd leg was one of the craziest Brazilian League finals. It ended 1-1 with two own goals, and went to extratime. São Paulo did 2-1 with Pita at '91, but Guarani tied at '97 and scored the 3-2 at '110, with this goal of guts. São Paulo needed a goal in 10 minutes, and at '119, Careca scored to tie the match 3-3 and become the league topscorer. On the penalties, Careca missed São Paulo's first shot, but so did Guarani. São Paulo would score all their 4 other penalties, while Guarani's João Paulo sent it away, so that São Paulo were crowned Brazilian League champions for the 2nd time.
São Paulo had 6 players elected to the League's Best XI: Gilmar, Dario Pereyra, Nelsinho, Bernardo, Pita, and the Golden Ball and league topscorer with 25 goals, Careca.
Also in 1986, São Paulo had 5 players called to the 1986 World Cup, notably the starters Müller and Careca, as well as Oscar, Falcão and Silas. They lost on the penalties to France in the quarter-finals.
1991-1994: Telê Santana Era, the team that dominated the world
Johan Cruyff said, after his Barcelona lost to São Paulo in the 1992 Intercontinental Cup: "if you are to be run over, better be by a Ferrari".
This São Paulo superteam dominated Brazil, South America and the World in these years. They won 2 Intercontinental Cups, 2 Copa Libertadores, 1 Brazilian League, 1 State League, 2 Recopa, 1 Supercopa Libertadores and 1 Copa Conmebol, not to mention the Tereza Herrera (4-1 against Barcelona) and the Ramón de Carranza (4-0 against Real Madrid) in Spain.
Everything started in 1990, with the arrival of Telê Santana, the celebrated Brazil 1982 coach. With him, São Paulo finished 2nd in the Brazilian League, losing to their rival Corinthians on the final.
In 1991, São Paulo began the season in great fashion, winning the Brazilian League by June, with a 67% rate. They led the first stage, then knocked Atlético Mineiro out in the semis after two ties (1-1, 0-0), before beating Bragantino in the final (1-0 and 0-0), with this goal from Tilico on the 1st leg. São Paulo were crowned Brazilian League champions for the 3rd time. Two São Paulo players were elected to the League Best XI: Ricardo Rocha and Leonardo.
On December 1991, São Paulo had their revenge against Corinthians in the State League final: in front of 102.000 spectators at the Morumbi, Raí scored a hat-trick and ended the conversation. 3-0 to São Paulo on the first leg, and a 0-0 tie in the second leg to secure the State League title against Corinthians.
1992: the first Copa Libertadores and Club World titles
In this season, São Paulo won the Copa Libertadores on the first semester, then the Intercontinental Cup and the State League titles on the second.
At the beginning, the coach Telê used the reserves in the Copa Libertadores, considering it a way too disloyal competition. But after a 0-3 defeat and with the pressure from the board to take it seriously, he changed his strategy and qualified from the group stage on the 2nd place, with 3W-2D-1L, behind Criciúma.
São Paulo passed through Nacional (Uruguay) in the ro16 without much problems and 2 wins (1-0, 2-0).
In the quarter-finals, São Paulo suffered, but beat Criciúma 1-0 at home with this goal from Macedo. In the 2nd leg, Criciúma opened the score at '10, but Palhinha tied with this great goal at '55, qualifying his team to the semis.
In the semis against Barcelona (Ecuador), São Paulo smashed them 3-0 at home, with another great goal from Palhinha. In the 2nd leg in Ecuador, São Paulo goalkeeper Zetti performed this huge mistake as Barcelona scored 2-0 at '87, but it was too late and São Paulo qualified to the final.
In the big final against Newell's Old Boys (Argentina), São Paulo lost the 1st leg in Argentina, 0-1. At home, with a crowd of 105.000 at the Morumbi, Raí scored 1-0 from a penalty at '65. The match ended and went to the penalties. The Argentines hit the post on their first shot, but São Paulo lost their third one. The Argentines missed their 4th shot, while Cafu scored. Zetti saved Newell's 5th shot - and São Paulo were crowned South American champions for the first time.
Palhinha was the Copa Libertadores topscorer with 7 goals. This title qualified São Paulo to the Intercontinental Cup, to play against European champions Barcelona in December.
São Paulo 2-1 Barcelona: the 1992 Intercontinental Cup title
In August, São Paulo had already beaten Barça 4-1 for the Tereza Herrera Trophy (5mn video), with Müller scoring this nice goal. Four months later, they would meet in Tokyo for the Intercontinental Cup trophy.
Bulgarian Stoichkov opened the score at '12 with this amazing goal. São Paulo, led by Raí, quickly dominated the match and tied at '27: Müller did a great Cruyffesque turn and assisted Raí to score. Minutes later, Müller almost scored this great lob goal. In the second half, Barcelona almost scored again, but Ronaldão saved on the line. At '78, Raí scored from this no-chance free-kick on the GK side to overcome the score to 2-1 in São Paulo's favor. Not much else was done, the match ended, and São Paulo were crowned for the first time Club World champions.
Raí, who scored a brace, was elected Man of the Match.
São Paulo - 2 1 - Barcelona
1. Zetti 1. Zubizarreta
2. Vítor 2. Ferrer
4. Ronaldão 4. Koeman
3. Adilson 3. Guardiola
6. Ronaldo Luís 5. Sacristán
5. Pintado 6. Bakero (Goikoetxea)
8. Toninho Cerezo (Dinho) 7. Amor
10. Raí 10. Witschge
11. Cafu 11. Beigiristain (Nadal)
7. Müller 8. Stoichkov
9. Palhinha 9. Laudrup
Telê Santana Johan Cruyff
One week after the title, on the 20th December, São Paulo played the 2nd leg of the São Paulo State League final, against rivals Palmeiras. São Paulo had won the 1st leg 4-2, with a hat-trick by Raí and this great goal by Cafu. In the 2nd and final leg, in front of 111.000 spectators, São Paulo won 2-1, with goals by Müller and Cerezo, to secure their 18th State League title and tie with Palmeiras in the State League title ranking.
São Paulo played 84 matches in 1992, with 45W-21D-18L (66% rate) and 133 goals scored. Raí was the topscorer with 31 goals, folllowed by Palhinha (25) and Müller (24).
1993: International Quadruple Crown, São Paulo dominates the World again
São Paulo started the season playing the São Paulo State League. However, the 1990s was a Golden Era of Brazilian football, and the State League was dominated by a rich Palmeiras sponsored by Parmalat, with Roberto Carlos, César Sampaio, Edílson, Zinho and Edmundo - so that São Paulo finished 3rd.
São Paulo were focused in the 1993 Copa Libertadores, which they entered in the ro16, as returning champions. At first they had a 1992 rematch against Newell's Old Boys (Argentina): they lost 0-2 in Argentina, but stomped them 4-0 at home in the 2nd leg (3mn29 video).
In the quarter-finals, they met Flamengo. Palhinha scored this beautiful lob goal at the Maracanã, in the 1st leg that ended 1-1. At home, Dinho almost scored from this crazy free-kick, but Müller didn't forgive and scored this nice goal at '24. Right-back Vitor saved São Paulo with the goal empty moments later, and then he assisted Cafu to score the second and qualifying goal at '68.
In the semis, São Paulo sent Cerro Porteño (Paraguay) home, after a 1-0 victory at home and a 0-0 tie away. In the 2nd leg, after a corner kick by Arce, Ronaldo Luís saved São Paulo on the goal line.
In the big final, São Paulo destroyed Universidad Católica (Chile). In the 1st leg at home, they were leading 5-0 at '70, before the Chileans scored their goal of honor at '85 - goals and highlights here (7mn13 video). In the 2nd leg in Chile, São Paulo lost 0-2, and were crowned back-to-back Copa Libertadores champions.
Raí left to French club PSG after the Libertadores title. In this first span (1987-93) at the club, he scored 111 goals in 306 matches, as a midfielder. He would come back later, from 1998 until 2000.
In September, São Paulo won their 2nd international trophy of the year - the Recopa Sudamericana, against Cruzeiro (0-0, 0-0, p.k. 4-2).
In November, São Paulo won their 3rd international trophy of the year - the Supercopa Libertadores, which gathered all the 16 Libertadores champions in history. After beating Independiente (Argentina) (2-0, 1-1), Grêmio (2-2, 1-0), Atlético Nacional (Colombia) (1-0, 1-2, p.k. 5-4) and Flamengo (2-2, 2-2, p.k. 5-3) in the final, they only needed a win in the Intercontinental Cup against the AC Milan of Fabio Capello to claim the unique International Quadruple Crown.
São Paulo 3-2 Milan: the 1993 Intercontinental Cup back-to-back title
The early 1990s Milan was legendary - Gli Invicibili (The Invincibles) that won the 1991/92 Serie A unbeaten, reaching a 58-match run with no defeats. Baresi, Costacurta and Maldini, one of the strongest defences in football history, also Desailly and Donadoni in midfield, plus Massaro and Jean-Pierre Papin in attack. This Milan had 5 starters of the 1994 WC final against Brazil - São Paulo had none, actually only 5 bench players (Zetti, Ronaldão, Leonardo, Müller, and Cafu - who was subbed in during the final).
This 1993/94 Milan only conceded 25 goals in 54 matches, but São Paulo somehow found a way to score 3 against them.
Milan started the match better, with this crazy shot from Massaro. But it was São Paulo who opened the score at '19 with Palhinha, after this cross from Cafu. Massaro tied at the beginning of the 2nd half, but Cerezo scored the second at '59 after a cross from Leonardo. Papin tied it 2-2 at '81 from a header. But 7 minutes later at '88, this funny back/knee goal happened, scored by Müller. São Paulo held the pressure, the match ended and the World belong to São Paulo once again, for the second year in a row.
Toninho Cerezo was elected Man of the Match. With this title, São Paulo joined Pelé's Santos record of winning two back-to-back Copa Libertadores and Club World titles - they are the only South American teams to have done so until today, and probably, forever.
São Paulo - 3 2 - Milan
1. Zetti 1. Rossi
2. Cafu 2. Panucci
4. Ronaldão 6. Baresi
3. Válber 4. Costacurta
6. André Luiz 3. Maldini
5. Dinho 8. Desailly
8. Doriva 5. Albertini (Tassotti)
11. Toninho Cerezo 7. Donadoni
10. Leonardo 11. Massaro
9. Palhinha (Juninho Paulista) 10. Papin
7. Müller 9. Raducioiu (Orlando)
Telê Santana Fabio Capello
With this title, São Paulo won the International Quadruple Crown, and is the only team in the South American history to have achieved it.
Date International Trophy Adversary
May 26th 1993 Copa Libertadores Universidad Católica (Chile)
September 29th 1993 Recopa Sudamericana Cruzeiro
November 24th 1993 Supercopa Libertadores Flamengo
December 12th 1993 Intercontinental Cup Milan (Italy)
In 1993, São Paulo played 98 matches, with 46W-30D-22L (62% rate), scoring 163 goals. Palhinha and Raí were the topscorers with 22 goals each, followed by Cafu (20) and Müller (15).
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Zetti 1990-97 432 - 17 - 1 (1994)
Cafu 1990-94 273 38 150 5 4 (1994, 1998, 2002, 2006)
Valber 1992-97 159 5 12 - -
Ronaldão 1986-93 300 3 14 3 1 (1994)
Ronaldo Luís 1992-95 109 2 - - -
André Luiz 1993-96 90 9 12 1 -
Pintado 1992-93 116 2 - - -
Doriva 1991-94 81 1 14 - 1 (1998)
Dinho 1992-93 113 12 1 - -
Toninho Cerezo 1992-93 72 7 73 5 2 (1978, 1980)
Raí 1987-93, 98-2000 393 128 49 17 1 (1994)
Leonardo 1990-91, 93-94, 2001 112 17 60 7 2 (1994, 1998)
Müller 1984-88, 90-94, 1996 191 110 59 12 3 (1986, 1990, 1994)
Palhinha 1992-95 229 71 16 5 -
Juninho Paulista 1993-95 141 22 50 5 1 (2002)
1994-95: the end of the Telê Era
Before Telê started to get sick in 1995, he had time to collect the 1994 Recopa Sudamericana and the 1994 Copa Conmebol - the latter with the reserve team, called Little Express, with upcoming talents such as Rogério Ceni, Juninho Paulista, and Denílson, who even beat the traditional Peñarol (Uruguay) 6-1 in the final - the largest score in a South American final ever.
He also reached the 1994 Copa Libertadores final, but lost it on the penalties to Vélez Sarsfield (Argentina) (0-1, 1-0, p.k. 3-5).
Telê passed away in 2006, at the age of 74, and is considered the best Brazilian coach in history. He inspired a series of world class coaches, namely Marcelo Bielsa, Arrigo Sachi and Pep Guardiola - notably with his Brazil 1982 and São Paulo 90-94 sides.
1996-2004: Rebuilding times, the club that almost wins
In this period, São Paulo was known for building good teams and revealing great players, but without collecting trophies. They only won 2 State Leagues (1998, 2000), 1 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (2001), and an irrelevant Copa Master da Conmebol (1996).
On the other hand, they finished 2nd in three State Leagues (1996, 1997, 2003), two Rio-São Paulo (1998, 2002), 1 Copa dos Campeões (2001), 1 Supercopa Libertadores (1997) and one traumatic Copa do Brasil (2000), losing the title in the last 10 minutes. They also reached 1 Copa Libertadores semi-final (2004), 1 Copa Sudamericana semi-final (2003) and finished 3rd in two Brazilian Leagues (2003, 2004). Meanwhile, their rivals Corinthians and Palmeiras were collecting trophy after trophy, while Santos started to reemerge to big titles.
The highlights of this period were the return of Raí in 1998 and his performance (7mn video) against Corinthians in the State League final, the performances of Rogério Ceni, Belletti, França, Dodô, Marcelinho Paraíba and Luís Fabiano, and the revelations of Denílson, Julio Baptista and Kaká. Three of them even represented São Paulo at the 2002 World Cup title (Rogério Ceni, Belletti, Kaká), as well as Edmilson and Denilson, who lived this period at the club and were now in Europe. But the trophies weren't coming.
Kaká, notably, appeared in 2001 in the Rio-São Paulo Tournament final. He entered the match at 0-1, and scored two goals in two minutes, thus taking the title home. He performed well in the 2001 Brazilian League, but was knocked out in the quarter-finals.
After the 2002 World Cup title in June, Kaká returned to São Paulo and tore the Brazilian League apart with Luis Fabiano, winning the Golden Ball Award. However, the title didn't come again, as they lost in the quarter-finals (1-3, 1-2) to the uprising young talents of Santos' Diego and Robinho. The São Paulo supporters were extremely angry at Kaká, calling him a popcorn maker (meaning choker in Brazil), and demanded his exit, notably after another defeat in the 2003 State League final (2-3, 2-3) to rivals Corinthians. Kaká then left the club in 2003 to join Milan. He played 131 matches and scored 48 goals for São Paulo, in this period (2001-2003).
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Rogério Ceni 1990-2015 1237 131 18 - 2 (2002, 2006)
Edmilson 1994-00 256 1 40 1 1 (2002)
Belletti 1996-02 200 16 51 1 1 (2002)
França 1996-02 327 182 8 1 -
Dodô 1995-99 169 93 5 2 -
Marcelinho Paraíba 1997-00, 2010-11 201 50 6 1 -
Denilson 1994-98 191 26 61 8 2 (1998, 2002)
Kaká 2001-03, 2014 155 51 95 31 3 (2002, 2006, 2010)
Luís Fabiano 2001-04, 2011-15 347 213 45 28 1 (2010)
2005, Libertadores, Club World Cup and Rogério Ceni - the myth, the legend, the 1
Before 2005, Rogério Ceni was considered just a good goalkeeper - after that, he became a club idol and started de facto his legacy. Ceni arrived at the club in 1990, at the age of 17. He got promoted to Telê's main team in 1992, after the death of third goalkeeper Alexandre, and collected some important titles under him, as reserve. He started playing in 1997, for both São Paulo and Brazil NT - his known antipathy however didn't help him for Brazil, specially with so many talents around with more empathy, like Taffarel and Marcos, or with more skills, like Dida. He developed himself as a world class free-kick taker - and that, somehow, worked against him when people analyzed his goalkeeping abilities.
Rogério Ceni is the goalkeeper with the most goals scored in history, with 131 goals in 1237 matches for São Paulo - 69 from penalties, 61 from free-kicks. In 2005, he notably scored 21 goals in 75 matches, being the team's topscorer of the season.
The team started the 2005 season with some good players from 2004: Cicinho, Fabão, Lugano, Josué, Danilo, Tardelli and Grafite. With the arrival of Júnior, Mineiro, Amoroso and Luizão, the team was ready to dominate South America and the world for the third time.
They started winning the São Paulo State League, led by the coach Émerson Leão, main responsible for building the team, since his arrival on September 2004. He would then leave to Japan, being subbed by Paulo Autuori.
In the Copa Libertadores group stage, São Paulo ended 1st, with 3W at home and 3D away, against The Strongest (Bolivia) (3-3, 3-0), Universidad de Chile (Chile) (4-2, 1-1) and Quilmes (Argentina) (2-2, 3-1). Highlights to this free-kick goal by Rogério Ceni against Universidad.
In the ro16, São Paulo met their city rivals Palmeiras, and won the 1st leg 1-0 away with this great goal by Cicinho. In the 2nd leg at home, Rogério Ceni and Cicinho scored at '81 and '89 to beat Palmeiras 2-0.
In the quarter-finals, Tigres (Mexico) lost 0-4 to São Paulo in the 1st leg - Ceni opened the score with this great free-kick and also scored the third from another free-kick. In Mexico, they lost 1-2, but qualified anyway.
River Plate (Argentina) would be their adversary in the semis. At home, São Paulo hit the post twice, and won by 2-0, with goals from Danilo at '76 and Rogério Ceni, from this penalty at '89. In Argentina, São Paulo won 3-2, without much problems.
In the big final, São Paulo met Athletico Paranaense, and tied 1-1 in the 1st leg (away), with this funny own goal when they were losing 0-1. In the 2nd leg at home, São Paulo won 4-0: first with Amoroso at '16. Athletico then missed a penalty, and São Paulo scored the 2nd at '52 with Fabão. Luizão scored the 3rd and Tardelli the 4th. São Paulo were for the 3rd time, the Copa Libertadores champions, and the first Brazilian team to achieve it.
Ceni and Luizão were the topscorers of the team, with 5 goals each. This title qualified them to the 2005 Club World Cup.
2005 Club World Cup: São Paulo 1-0 Liverpool, 3x Club World champions
In Japan for their 3rd time, São Paulo first beat Al-Ittihad (Saudi Arabia) 3-2 in the semis, so they could face European champions Liverpool in the final.
The English team hadn't conceded a goal in 10 matches, and went full-attack on São Paulo, who defended themselves. But at '27, Mineiro scored the only goal of the match after a chipping from Aloisio. São Paulo defended as they could, with great help from Ceni, who performed the save of the year after Gerrard's free-kick at '51. The match ended at '93, and São Paulo were crowned Club World champions for the third time.
Ceni was elected Man of the Match and Golden Ball of the Cup.
São Paulo - 1 0 - Liverpool
1. Rogério Ceni 12. Pepe Reina
5. Lugano 3. Finnan
3. Fabão 4. Hyypiä
4. Edcarlos 23. Carragher
2. Cicinho 2. Warnock (Riise)
6. Júnior 22. Sissoko (Pongolle)
7. Mineiro 8. Gerrard
8. Josué 14. Xabi Alonso
10. Danilo 7. Kewell
14. Aloísio (Grafite) 10. Luis Garcia
11. Amoroso 19. Morientes (Crouch)
Paulo Autuori Rafael Benítez
2006-08: the Brazilian Sovereign
In 2006, São Paulo reached once again the Copa Libertadores final, but lost to Internacional (1-2, 2-2).
The team then focused on the Brazilian League, which they would win three consecutive times. Led by coach Muricy Ramalho, they would play defensive football (3-5-2) and show great regularity - though always getting eliminated in knock-out competitions. With these 3 titles, they reached a total of 6 league titles in their history.
In these 3 league titles, São Paulo played 114 matches, with 66 wins and only 16 defeats (overall rate of 67%), conceding only 87 goals.
11 São Paulo players were elected to the League's Best XI in this period: Ceni, Ilsinho, Fabão, Mineiro and Aloísio (2006), Ceni, Breno, Richarlyson, Hernanes (2007), Ceni, André Dias, Miranda, Hernanes and Borges (2008). Highlights to Hernanes, great São Paulo revelation, who later shone in Europe.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Cicinho 2004-05, 2010 151 21 15 1 1 (2006)
Lugano (Uruguay) 2003-06, 2016-17 213 13 95 10 2 (2010, 2014)
Júnior 2004-08 198 11 22 1 1 (2002)
Mineiro 2005-07 138 7 25 -
Josué 2005-07 158 7 28 1 1 (2010)
Danilo 2004-06 194 37 - - -
Grafite 2004-06 75 27 4 1 1 (2010)
Amoroso 2005 26 18 20 10 -
Luizão 2005 28 11 17 3 1 (2002)
Aloísio 2005-08 124 23 - - -
Miranda 2006-11 260 10 58 3 1 (2018)
Richarlyson 2005-10 147 6 2 - -
Hernanes 2005-10, 2017, 2019- 297 49 27 2 1 (2014)
2009-today
The São Paulo that brought fear to their adversaries disappeared in this period, collecting only one Copa Sudamericana in 2012. They managed however to reach two Copa Libertadores semi-finals (2010, 2016), two Copa do Brasil semi-finals (2012, 2015) and one 2nd place in the Brazilian League (2014). They also revealed Casemiro and Lucas Moura, among others.
São Paulo is one of the 3 Brazilian clubs to never be relegated.
To this day, São Paulo has the 3rd largest fanbase in Brazil, with 17 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 27.400, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.30 12:32 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 11/12: Cruzeiro

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 11/12: Cruzeiro (State: Minas Gerais), founded in 1921

State rivals: Atlético Mineiro, América Mineiro

Stadium: Mineirão - New / Old

Mascot: Fox

Major achievements: 2 Copa Libertadores (1976, 1997), 4 Brazilian Leagues (1966, 2003, 2013, 2014), 6 Copa do Brasil (1993, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2017, 2018), 2 Supercopa Libertadores (1991, 1992)

State League titles: 38 (Against Atlético Mineiro's 45, América Mineiro's 16)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO CRUZEIRO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
Palestra Italia and the first decades
Inspired by the Italian team founded in São Paulo in 1914, Palestra Italia (eventually Palmeiras), the Belo Horizonte Italian city colony decided to create their own Palestra Italia in 1921. In 1925 already, the club was open to any nationality.
Until 1959, due to Brazil's huge size and weak infrastructure, there wasn't a national league yet, so the teams played inside their own State Leagues. Cruzeiro won their first in 1928, followed by two more titles in 1929 and 1930. At that point, their rivals Atlético Mineiro and América Mineiro had 3 and 10 titles, respectivally.
In 1931, two Cruzeiro's players became the firsts Brazilians bought by an European club: Ninão (FW) and Nininho (LB) left for Lazio in 1931.
1942: World War II, Palestra Italia becomes Cruzeiro
After Brazil's war declaration against the Axis, every Italian/German/Nippon-associated name in the country would have to be rebranded. Palestra Italia became Palestra Mineiro (Mineiro meaning "from the state of Minas Gerais"). However, despite Palestra being a greek word, it had to be taken out aswell. Yale, Ypiranga and Cruzeiro were suggested at the assembly, with the latter being chosen, in honor of the Cruzeiro do Sul constellation.
Through the 1940s, 1950s and until 1965, Cruzeiro won 8 more State League titles, totalizing 11 titles, Atlético Mineiro and América Mineiro had 22 and 12 titles, respectivally.
1965-1977: the dream team
In this period, Cruzeiro stepped up from being a regional team to become a major national protagonist, notably beating the big teams from the Rio-São Paulo axis.
Cruzeiro won 1 Copa Libertadores (1976), 1 Brazilian League (1966) and 10 State Leagues (5 of them consecutively). They also finished 2nd in 3 Brazilian Leagues (1969, 1974, 1975) and 1 Copa Libertadores (1977).
Cruzeiro also provided 7 World Cup call-ups, with Tostão (1966, 1970), Fontana (1970), Piazza (1970, 1974) and Nelinho (1974, 1978). Besides, from 1970 to 1975, 6 Cruzeiro players' were elected to one of the greatest League XI in the world at that time: Brito (1970), Dirceu Lopes (1970, 1971, 1973), Tostão (1970), Piazza (1972), Nelinho (1975) and Palhinha (1975). Tostão was elected 1971 South American Player of the Year.
Everything started in 1965: the team wasn't performing well in the State League, until the building of the new city stadium ended - the Mineirão inspired Cruzeiro to become a more competitive team, so that they ended the State League as undisputed champions.
In 1966, the team was reinforced with some talents, for the 8th edition of the Brazilian League, still disputed in a short knock-out system. Only each State League champion of all the Brazilian states (21) were allowed into it, as well as the current champions. Cruzeiro had never gone beyond a top6 position, but in 1966 everything would be different.
It was in that 1966 season that Cruzeiro beat Pelé's Santos 6-2 in the final, at a full Mineirão (90.000 spectators). It was absurd, and no one could believe that.
Cruzeiro (4-1-5) 6 x 2 Santos (4-2-4)
1. Raul 1. Gylmar
2. Pedro Paulo 2. Carlos Alberto Torres
3. William 3. Mauro
4. Procópio 4. Oberdan
5. Neco o.g. 5. Zé Carlos
6. Piazza 6. Zito
7. Dirceu Lopes 3x 7. Lima
8. Natal 1x 8. Dorval
9. Evaldo 2x 9. Toninho Guerreiro
10. Tostão 1x 10. Pelé
11. Hilton 11. Pepe
Airton Moreira Lula
Santos had 6 World Cup champions on their line-up, and had won 5 consecutive Brazilian League titles, besides being continental and club world champions twice, and having smashed every possible big team in the world. But now, it was Cruzeiro who smashed them 6-2, with a hat-trick from Dirceu Lopes.
The first half ended 5-0 in Cruzeiro's favor, with a constant bombing from them. Santos scored twice in the second half, before Cruzeiro ended the match with their 6th goal: you can see all Cruzeiro goals here.
In the final 2nd leg, the rain transformed the pitch into a mud. Santos ended the first half with a 2-0 advantage, with Pelé scoring once - things seemed to have come back to normal. But they only seemed, as Cruzeiro score three times in the second half, at '63, '73 and '89, besides missing a penalty at '57. First with Tostão from this nice free-kick, then with Dirceu Lopes and Natal. It was over, Cruzeiro had beaten Pelé's Santos and were crowned Brazilian League champions for the first time. Highlights to goalkeeper Raul, who operated miracles throughout the second match and to defensive midfielder Piazza, who made Pelé disappear on the pitch.
This victory meant a lot in the development of Brazil's National League: the 1967 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (interstate league) was then opened and enlarged to teams from the states of Minas Gerais (Cruzeiro, Atlético Mineiro) and Rio Grande do Sul (Grêmio, Internacional), as a recognition of their level, thus creating a new Brazilian League, more condensed and elitized, gathering the best teams from 4 states, rather than the old democratic (but less competitive) format which gathered 21 states.
Cruzeito kept collecting State League titles against their archrival Atlético Mineiro: 5 in a row between 1965 and 1969, then 4 in a row between 1972 and 1975 - 9 titles in 12 years, Cruzeiro's best rate until today. Highlights to Roberto Perfumo, prestigious Argentine center-back, elected to Argentina all-time dream team, who played in 138 matches for Cruzeiro between 1971-74.
In 1969, they finished second to Palmeiras in the Brazilian League, due to just 1 fewer goal on the goal difference (1x2).
In 1974, they finished second to Vasco in the Brazilian League. They had a greater goal difference (2x1) but the rule determined an extra match, which Cruzeiro lost 1-2.
1976: the first Copa Libertadores title
After losing the 1975 Brazilian League final 0-1 to Internacional, Cruzeiro picked the second spot to the 1976 Copa Libertadores.
Only 1 of 4 teams would advance from their group stage, shared with Internacional, and the Paraguayans Olimpia and Sportivo Luqueño. It was pretty much clear that the spot would go either to Cruzeiro or Internacional: they met on the first match, a crazy 5-4 victory to Cruzeiro, who was never behind in the score - they were leading 3-1, Internacional tied at '51, Cruzeiro took the lead again, but Internacional tied at '70, before Cruzeiro closed the coffin at '84 from a penalty kick.
In the second group stage, Cruzeiro demolished Ecuadorians and Peruvians with 4 easy wins: 3-1, 4-0, 7-1, 4-1. They qualified to the big final against River Plate with a 9W-1D campaign, scoring 38 goals in 10 matches.
In the final 1st leg, Cruzeiro demolished the Argentines, beating them 4-1 at home. In the second leg, however, they were beaten 1-2 at the Monumental stadium in Argentina, and the title would be decided in an extra match, in Chile.
In the 3rd and decisive match, Cruzeiro had opened 2-0 at '55 with Nelinho and Eduardo, but River Plate reacted and scored at '59 and '64. At '88, Joãozinho scored the title goal from a free-kick, and Cruzeiro were declared South American champions for the first time, the second Brazilian team to do so.
Palhinha was the topscorer, with 13 goals in 11 matches. The South American level was so crazy back then, that no Cruzeiro player was included in the South American POTY shortlist, with the likes of Figueroa (1st), Zico (2nd) and Rivellino (3rd) making it.
This title qualified Cruzeiro to the 1976 Intercontinental Cup against European champions Bayern München. However, they lost the title over two legs - a 0-2 defeat in Germany and a 0-0 tie in Brazil.
In 1977, Cruzeiro entered the Copa Libertadores on the second stage, as current champions, where they beat Internacional and Portuguesa. In the finals, Boca Juniors beat them 5-4 in the penalties on the third match (0-1, 1-0, 0-0).
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Raul 1965-78 557 - 8 - -
Piazza 1963-78 566 40 59 36 2 (1970, 1974)
Tostão 1964-71 378 249 65 36 2 (1966, 1970)
Dirceu Lopes 1964-77 594 224 19 4 -
Nelinho 1973-82 427 105 21 6 2 (1974, 1978)
Palhinha 1969-76 434 145 16 6 -
Joãozinho 1973-82 482 116 6 1 -
Jairzinho 1976 24 15 105 44 3 (1966, 1970, 1974)
1990s: international glory, birth of Ronaldo Nazário, and Copa do Brasil supremacy
Cruzeiro vanished from the domestic and international scene in the 1980s, collecting just two state league titles in 1984 and 1987.
The 1990s however marked the rebirth of the Fox. They won 6 international titles (1 Libertadores, 2 Supercopa Libertadores, 1 Recopa, 1 Copa Ouro, 1 Copa Master), 3 Copa do Brasil, and saw the uprising of Ronaldo Nazário between 1993 and 1994.
1991-92: back-to-back Supercopa Libertadores titles
The Supercopa Libertadores (1988-97) gathered all the teams who had already conquered the prestigious Copa Libertadores, in a knock-out tournament, that would give a spot in the Recopa Sudamericana.
In 1991, Cruzeiro won it after 8 matches (2W-4D-2L), beating Colo-Colo (Chile) (0-0, 0-0, p.k. 4-3), Nacional (Uruguay) (4-0, 0-3), Olimpia (Paraguay) (1-1, 0-0, p.k. 5-4) and River Plate (Argentina) (0-2, 3-0) in the final.
Highlights to Cruzeiro comeback in the big final, scoring 3 goals on the return leg at home (6mn video), in front of 70.000 spectators. It was Cruzeiro's second international trophy, the second won against River Plate.
In the 1992 title campaign, Cruzeiro beat Atlético Nacional (Colombia) (1-1, 8-0), River Plate (Argentina) (2-0, 0-2, p.k. 5-4), Olimpia (Paraguay) (1-0, 2-2), and Racing (Argentina) (4-0, 0-1) in the final.
The next year, Cruzeiro won their first Copa do Brasil, which had been launched in 1989. They beat Nautico (0-1, 2-0) with this nice qualiyfing-goal after a nutmeg from Nonato. Then they beat the reserves of São Paulo in the quarter-finals, and Vasco in the semis (3-1, 1-1). The final would be against Grêmio, the Brazilian Rei de Copas (King of Cups). First leg away ended 0-0, and at home Cruzeiro won 2-1, with the winning goal coming from a header at '65.
In those years, however, Cruzeiro lost two Recopa Sudamericana to the Libertadores champions Colo-Colo, in 1992, and São Paulo, in 1993.
1993: Ronaldo Nazário, the birth of a legend
At the age of 16, Ronaldo made his professional debut for Cruzeiro. In that 1993 season, Ronaldo played only 29 matches of the team's 62 over the year, and still managed to score 28 goals, being the topscorer. He notably scored 12 goals in 14 Brazilian League matches, and 8 goals (topscorer) in 4 Supercopa Libertadores' matches. In the Supercopa Libertadores, he scored a hat-trick and a brace against Colo-Colo (Chile), a brace against Nacional (Uruguay), before his team fell on penalties.
He also scored 5 goals on the same league match against Bahia, notably this funny/iconic one against the celebrated Uruguayan goalkeeper Rodolfo Rodriguez.
The next season, in 1994, Ronaldo kept destroying his adversaries, before leaving to PSV. He scored 28 in 29 matches, 22 of them in the state league (which Cruzeiro won undefeated), and a special historical one against Boca Juniors in the Copa Libertadores, where he performed his traditional arrancada, going from the midfield past 4 adversaries, including the goalkeeper, before scoring.
He was called and won the 1994 World Cup with Brazil, before leaving Cruzeiro, having scored 56 goals in 58 matches.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Ronaldo Nazário 1993-94 58 56 105 67 4 (1994, 1998, 2002, 2006)
1996-97: Cruzeiro's second Copa do Brasil and Copa Libertadores titles
As complete underdogs, Cruzeiro won for the second time the Copa do Brasil and the prestigious Copa Libertadores.
In 1996 Copa do Brasil, Cruzeiro demolished Vasco in the round of 16, beating them 6-2 and then tying 1-1. In the quarter-finals, they smashed the good Corinthians of Edmundo and Marcelinho 4-0 and advanced to the semis, where they tied twice against Flamengo (1-1, 0-0). The big final would be against the stellar team of Palmeiras, of the monsters Cafu, Júnior, Djalminha, Luizão and Rivaldo. Cruzeiro had Dida, who saved this shot at the end of the first leg, Marcelo Ramos, who scored the tying goal and the excellent/multichampion Palhinha. The 1-1 tie at home wasn't great, but Cruzeiro somehow managed to beat Palmeiras 2-1 away in the 2nd leg, in a great comeback.
Palmeiras opened the score at '6 with this majestic Djalminha-to-Rivaldo-to-Luizão goal - everyone was expecting a large win by Palmeiras. But Cruzeiro tied at '25 with Roberto Gaucho, after Amaral childish mistake.
In the second half, Dida appeared. The goalkeeper made several great defenses, which prevented Cruzeiro from suffering a massacre. The excellent Palhinha answered with this touch of finesse, saved by Velloso. At '85, Marcelo Ramos scored the winning goal and Cruzeiro were Copa do Brasil champions.
This title qualified Cruzeiro to the 1997 Copa Libertadores.
1997: Copa Libertadores title, Cruzeiro are continental champions again
After 21 years, Cruzeiro won the Copa Libertadores for the second time. Unlike their 1976 squad, the team had a difficult time, with 7W-1D-5L.
The team began with 3 defeats on the group stage (1-2, 0-1, 0-1), one at home against Grêmio and two away, against Peruvian teams Alianza Lima and Sporting Cristal. Cruzeiro needed at least two wins to be part of the 3 teams to advance: they beat Grêmio 1-0 away, then Alianza Lima 2-0 at home, and - already qualified - 2-1 against Sporting Cristal.
In the ro16, Cruzeiro lost the 1st leg away to El Nacional, 0-1. In the return leg, Cruzeiro opened 2-0, but the match ended 2-1, going to the penalties - where the star Dida defended two, and Cruzeiro advanced to the next stage.
Grêmio would be their opponent in the quarter-finals, and playing the first leg at home in the Mineirão, Cruzeiro won 2-0. In the 2nd leg, Cruzeiro opened 1-0, conceded two goals, and left the Olimpico stadium with a 1-2 defeat and qualified to the semis.
In the semi-finals, Cruzeiro met Colo-Colo. In the first leg, at home, the Brazilians won 1-0, after this master-dumb action by Colo-Colo goalkeeper. In Chile, Cruzeiro were losing 1-3, until they scored this savior goal at '63, taking it to the penalties. Dida star shone again, as he defended two penalties and put Cruzeiro on the final.
In the final against Sporting Cristal, the first match would be played in Peru, which was pretty balanced and ended 0-0. In Brazil, Dida saved Cruzeiro again, before Elivelto scored the title goal at '75. Cruzeiro were crowned Copa Libertadores champions for the second time.
However, Cruzeiro only escaped relegation in the national league on the last match - the board only cared about the Intercontinental Cup in December against European champions Borussia Dortmund. They got Bebeto and Donizete on loan just for this match, but they lost it 0-2.
1998: the runner-up season
Cruzeiro increased a lot in 1998 with the arrivals of Fabio Junior, Müller and Valdo.
They finished 2nd in the Brazilian League, in the Copa do Brasil and in the Copa Mercosul. However, they won the State League for the third time in a row, and also won the Recopa Sudamericana against River Plate (2-0, 3-0). In the Copa Libertadores, they were knocked out in the round of 16 by the eventual champions, Vasco.
Dida left at the end of the season to Milan.
2000: third Copa do Brasil title, and the end of a glorious decade
Cruzeiro played 13 matches, with 8W-5D, to secure the 2000 Copa do Brasil title. They notably beat Athletico (2-1, 2-2), Botafogo (3-2, 0-0), Santos (2-0, 2-2) and São Paulo (0-0, 2-1).
Highlights to the big final, against São Paulo. Cruzeiro tied the 1st leg away 0-0, and were losing 0-1 at home in the 2nd leg. At '80, Fabio Junior tied, but Cruzeiro needed one more goal. At '90, Giovanni scored from this free-kick, to the despair of goalkeeper Rogerio Ceni. São Paulo almost tied at '91, the match ended at '92, and Cruzeiro won the Copa do Brasil title for their third time.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Dida 1994-98 209 - 92 - 3 (1998, 2002, 2006)
Cris 1999-04 260 25 16 1 1 (2006)
Sorín (Argentina) 2000-02 110 17 76 12 2 (2002, 2006)
Marcelo Djian 1998-00 96 5 - - -
Nonato 1991-97 339 22 3 - -
Valdo 1998-00 52 11 65 6 2 (1986, 1990)
Ricardinho 1994-02 411 45 3 - -
Palhinha 1996-97 55 18 16 5 -
Marcelo Ramos 1995-96, 97-00, 01-03 345 162 2 1 -
Fabio Junior 1997-98, 2000 65 30 3 - -
Elivelton 1997-98 20 5 13 1 -
Müller 1998-00 93 24 59 12 3 (1986, 1990, 1994)
Oséas 2000-01 130 55 2 - -
Roberto Gaúcho 1992-97 113 25 - - -
2003: the dream year
Luxemburgo, former Palmeiras, Corinthians and Brazil NT coach, took the job in late 2002, when the team was threatened of relegation, but got saved.
The new coach started building the team for the following season, and the result was an unprecedented national triple crown conquest, with the titles of the State League, the Copa do Brasil and the Brasileirão. Since the creation of the Copa do Brasil in 1989, the only teams that got close to winning both the Copa and the League was Cruzeiro in 1998, finishing second in both, and Corinthians in 2002, winning the Copa and losing the league's final.
But in 2003, Cruzeiro had a powerful and demolishing team that won it all. They started winning the State League undefeated, with 10W-2D. In the Copa do Brasil, they played 11 matches, with 8W-3D, beating Vasco (2-1, 1-1), Goiás (3-2, 2-1) and Flamengo (1-1, 3-1) in the final. Highlights to this back-heel goal by Alex in the final 1st leg. Despite winning the Copa, Cruzeiro still had to prove themselves in the league, because between 2001 and 2012 the best teams in Brazil weren't allowed to play the Copa do Brasil, so that they could focus in the Copa Libertadores.
The 2003 Brazilian League was the first one with a double round-robin and no play-offs in the history of the league. Cruzeiro biggest adversary were Santos, current Brazilian champions and runner-up of the Copa Libertadores, hyped by the upcoming talents of Diego and Robinho. But Cruzeiro had Alex, the most capped Brazilian player in history not to be called to a World Cup, a Palmeiras, Coritiba and Fenerbahçe idol. With him leading the team as a 10, they reached a rate of 72% on the league, over 46 matches, with a win rate of 67%. Cruzeiro led the league all the way around since the 8th round through the 46th round, with the exception of 2 rounds that Santos quickly led (16 and 28). Cruzeiro notably beat Santos 2-0 away and 3-0 at home, the latter match being seen as the most decisive of the league, in which Cruzeiro showed no mercy or fatigue. Until Flamengo's 2019 campaign, this was considered the most dominant display by a team in the "Double Round-Robin National League Era (since 2003)". However, the quality of the national league in 2003 was a couple of tiers above the 2019 one, making Cruzeiro accomplishment relatively more difficult to achieve than 2019 Flamengo's.
Until today, 2003 Cruzeiro is seen as the most powerful Brazilian team of the 21st century, along with 2010 Santos and 2019 Flamengo - in terms of aesthetics, strenght and superiority.
However, the team dismantled in early 2004, and couldn't reach higher levels anymore.
This 48mn documentary tells the whole story of Cruzeiro triple-crown season. Three Cruzeiro players were elected to the League Best XI, namely Maurinho, Maldonado and Alex, the latter also winning the League Golden Ball.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup att.
Gomes 2002-04 108 - 12 - 1 (2010)
Maurinho 2003-06 107 5 2 - -
Maicon 2000-04 101 3 77 7 2 (2010, 2014)
Edu Dracena 2003-06 131 11 3 - -
Luisão 2000-03 114 13 47 3 2 (2006, 2010)
Augusto Recife 2002-04 144 2 - - -
Maldonado (Chile) 2003-05 116 4 41 1 -
Alex 2001-04 123 63 51 12 -
Aristizabal (Colombia) 2003-04 80 36 66 15 2 (1994, 1998)
Deivid 2003 37 28 - - -
Mota 2003-04 57 24 - - -
You can see some highlights of the maestro Alex in this video (5mn), but make sure to check this goal, also this one and this one.
2013-14: back-to-back Brazilian League champions
After Cruzeiro's 2003 dream season, they reached the Copa Libertadores final in 2009, traumatically losing the final 1-2 at home to Estudiantes, after opening the score at '51 - they tied the 1st leg 0-0 in Argentina. In 2010, Cruzeiro was the Brazilian League runner-up. On the last league match in 2011, Cruzeiro feared relegation, but won the historical derby against their archrival Atlético Mineiro by the score of 6-1, a derby record. Cruzeiro also won some state leagues here and there, but never managed in their whole history to surpass Atlético Mineiro in overall state league titles - the closest was in 1930, when they had 3 titles each.
In 2013 and 2014 Cruzeiro won back-to-back Brazilian League titles, reaching the number of 4 titles (1966, 2003, 2013, 2014). In 2013, Cruzeiro led 26 of 38 rounds, and had 5 players elected to the League's Best XI: Fábio, Mayke, Dedé, Nilton, and Golden Ball winner, Éverton Ribeiro. In 2014, Cruzeiro led 32 of 38 league rounds, all consecutively since the 6th round - a league record, until 2017 Corinthians (33 leading rounds). Cruzeiro also had 2 players elected to the League's Best XI: Lucas Silva and Golden Ball winner, Ricardo Goulart. Later that season, they had a shot at winning their second national triple crown, but lost the Copa do Brasil final to their archrival Atlético Mineiro (0-2, 0-1).
Highlights to this golaço of Éverton Ribeiro against Flamengo in the 2013 Copa do Brasil.
Player Period Apps Goals
Fábio 2005- 897 -
Dedé 2013- 194 18
Mayke 2013-18 138 3
Egídio 2013-14, 17-19 199 4
Nilton 2013-14 91 11
Lucas Silva 2011-14, 17-19 190 6
Henrique 2008-11, 13-19 521 27
Everton Ribeiro 2013-15 117 24
Ricardo Goulart 2013-14 115 42
Borges 2012-14 75 28
Dagoberto 2013-15 81 23
Marcelo Moreno (Bolivia) 2007-08, 2014, 2020- 103 47
Willian 2013-16 185 40
2017-2018: back-to-back Copa do Brasil champions
In 2017, Cruzeiro won their 5th Copa do Brasil title, with 7W-5D-2L. From the quarter-finals until the title, they won either on penalties or on away goal: against Palmeiras (3-3, 1-1), the qualifying goal came at home with this header at '84, then against Grêmio (0-1, 1-0, p.k. 3-2) with Fábio saving Luan's last penalty, and the final against Flamengo (1-1, 0-0, p.k. 5-3 - no away goal rule), with Fábio saving Diego's penalty.
In 2018, Cruzeiro won their 6th Copa do Brasil title, a national record, with 5W-2D-1L. They beat Athletico in the round of 16 (2-1, 1-1), Santos in the quarter-finals (1-0, 1-2, p.k. 3-0) with Fábio saving all three Santos penalties (Bruno Henrique, Rodrygo, Jean Mota), Palmeiras in the semis (1-0, 1-1), and finally Corinthians in the big final (1-0, 2-1), with this nice chipping last goal from Arrascaeta.
Player Period Apps Goals
Ezequiel 2016-18 70 1
Léo 2010- 380 19
Diogo Barbosa 2017 59 2
Alisson 2012-17 161 22
Rafinha 2016-18 125 11
Robinho 2016-2020 176 23
Rafael Sóbis 2016-18 116 24
Arrascaeta (Uruguay) 2015-18 186 49
2019-today
In 2019, Cruzeiro went from being title favorites to being relegated to Serie B. Not only the club went through a huge financial/debt crisis, but also the club's expensive players chose not to care about the results - a shameful and enormous disengagement led by Cruzeiro's biggest villain and conspirator, the midfielder Thiago Neves. The club now fights against FIFA-debts punishments and is in the Serie B relegation zone to Serie C.
To this day, Cruzeiro has a fanbase of 7 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 24.200, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.23 12:35 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 10/12: Palmeiras

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 10/12: Palmeiras (State: São Paulo), founded in 1914

State rivals: Corinthians, São Paulo, Santos

Stadium: Allianz Parque (New) / Parque Antarctica (Old)

Mascot: Pig

Major achievements: 1 Copa Rio (1951), 1 Copa Libertadores (1999), 10 Brazilian Leagues (1960, 1967, 1967, 1969, 1972, 1973, 1993, 1994, 2016, 2018), 3 Copa do Brasil (1998, 2012, 2015), 1 Copa Mercosul (1998)

State League titles: 23 (Against Corinthians' 30, Santos' 22, São Paulo's 21)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO PALMEIRAS ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
Palestra Italia and the first decades
Palmeiras was founded as Palestra Italia in 1914, by Italian immigrants in São Paulo. In the 1920s, they acquired the ground of the Antarctica company, which included the Parque Antarctica stadium. On this decade, Palestra won 3 State Leagues and finished 2nd on three other opportunities. At this time and until 1959, there wasn't a national league yet, due to Brazil's huge size and weak infrastructure, so the State Leagues were the main tournament, which Palestra would win 5 more times in the 1930s. They also won the 1st edition of the prestigious Rio-São Paulo Tournament, a regional league attended by big teams from São Paulo and Rio only.
1942: World War II and Palestra becomes Palmeiras
Brazil were neutral in the 2nd World War until 1942, when they declared war against the Axis (Italy, Germany, Japan). This forced every club name related to these countries to be reconsidered, so Palestra Italia became Palestra.
However, the Brazilian government demanded that Palestra was also removed from the club's name, despite it being a greek word. Palmeiras was then adopted, to keep the letter P and in honor of the Associação Atlética das Palmeiras, an extinct club that helped Palestra on their early days.
In the 1940s, they won 4 more State Leagues titles, but were still behind their rival Corinthians on the overall counting - they would only surpass Corinthians in State League titles for the first time in 1972, keeping the record until 1982, to never surpass them again.
1951: Copa Rio, Palmeiras' first club world title
The Copa Rio was the first attempt of a club world cup, preceding the creation of the Intercontinental Cup in 1960.
Group Club Qualification
A Palmeiras 1950 State League champion
B Vasco (Brazil) 1950 State League champion
A Juventus (Italy) 1950 Serie A champion
B Sporting (Portugal) 1950 Portuguese League champion
A Red Star (Yugoslavia) 1950 Yugoslavia Cup champion
B Austria Wien (Austria) 1950 Austrian League champion
A Nice (France) 1951 French League champion
B Nacional (Uruguay) 1950 Uruguayan League champion
Palmeiras placed 2nd inside their group, beating Nice 3-0, Red Star 2-1 and losing to Juventus 0-4. In the semis, they beat Vasco 2-1 and tied 0-0 in the return leg, before facing Juventus in the final.
Stage Result Attendance Venue
Final Palmeiras 1-0 Juventus 56.961 Maracanã
Final Palmeiras 2-2 Juventus 100.093 Maracanã
In the final 2nd leg, Juventus opened the score at '18, but Palmeiras tied at '47. Juventus scored again at '63, but Palmeiras equalized it at '77. The match ended 2-2, and Palmeiras were crowned club world champions.
The 1960s: the first Academy of Football
After the Copa Rio title in 1951, Palmeiras won one more Rio-São Paulo Tournament in 1951 and one State League title in 1959, beating Pelé's Santos 2-1 on the last and decisive match.
In the 1960s, the Brazilian press gave Palmeiras the alias Academy of Football, due to the extreme class and technique of their teams. Players of the caliber of Ademir da Guia, Djalma Santos, Dudu, Julinho Botelho, Zequinha and Tupãzinho won Palmeiras several titles in the 1960s: 4 Brazilian Leagues (1960, 1967, 1967, 1969), 2 State Leagues (1963, 1966) and 1 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (1965). The 1960s Palmeiras are notably known for stopping Pelé's Santos from winning almost everything in the decade.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Ademir da Guia 1962-77 902 153 14 - 1 (1974)
Dudu 1964-75 609 25 13 1 -
Julinho Botelho 1958-67 269 81 24 11 1 (1954)
Djalma Santos 1959-68 498 10 100 3 4 (1954, 1958, 1962, 1966)
Zequinha 1958-68 417 40 16 2 1 (1962)
Tupãzinho 1963-68 231 122 - - -
They also reached two Copa Libertadores finals: in 1961, Palmeiras lost to Peñarol (0-1, 1-1), and in 1968, to Estudiantes (1-2, 3-1, 0-2).
The 1970s: the second Academy of Football
The second wave of Palmeiras' Football Academy took place in the 1970s. Still led by Ademir da Guia and Dudu, the club was reinforced by Luís Pereira, Leivinha, César Maluco and Leão.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Luís Pereira 1968-75 346 19 38 1 1 (1974)
Leivinha 1971-75 268 108 27 7 1 (1974)
César Maluco 1967-75 327 182 13 1 1 (1974)
Leão 1968-78 617 - 105 - 4 (1970, 1974, 1978, 1986)
Together at Palmeiras, these monsters won 2 Brazilian Leagues (1972, 1973) and 2 State Leagues (1972, 1974). In the 1974 World Cup, Palmeiras provided Brazil with 6 players (Leão, Luís Pereira, Leivinha, César Maluco, Ademir da Guia and Alfredo), finishing in the 4th place.
In the end, the Palmeiras Academy won the same number of Brasileirão titles as Pelé's Santos (6) and reached the same number of Copa Libertadores finals (2). However, they won 6 fewer State League titles (4x10).
Highlights to the 1973 Brazilian League title, with only 3 defeats in 40 matches. In the final stage, Palmeiras beat 1-0 the strong Cruzeiro of Nelinho, Piazza, Palhinha and Dirceu Lopes, away at the Mineirão stadium, with this goal from Edu Bala at '74. Then they beat 2-1 another strong team, the Internacional of Figueroa, Carpegiani, Valdomiro, Falcão, Claudiomiro and Escurinho. After Internacional opened the score, Palmeiras tied at '77 with Ronaldo and Luís Pereira scored the winning goal at '80. On the last match, a 0-0 tie against São Paulo was enough for Palmeiras to be declared Brazilian champions for the 6th time. Only 35 years later, in 2008, would a new team (São Paulo FC) reach the number of 6 Brazilian League titles.
In 1974, Palmeiras met their archrival Corinthians in the State League final. Corinthians were on a 20-year title drought (since 1954) and desperately needed a trophy. In front of 122.522 supporters at the Morumbi stadium, Palmeiras won the final 1-0, with this goal from Ronaldo, and left their rivals trophyless for one more season.
In 1976, Palmeiras won their last title before a drought that would last until 1993. They won the 1976 State League title against XV de Piracicaba, 1-0 at home. It would also be Ademir da Guia last title at the club, before he left in 1977.
1993-2000: the Parmalat Era
Between 1976 and 1993, Palmeiras didn't win a single title, finishing 2nd in one Brazilian League (1978) and in two State Leagues (1986, 1992).
In 1992, however, the Italian company Parmalat signed a huge deal with the club, bringing expensive and talented players. In 1993 already, they won 1 State League, 1 Rio-São Paulo Tournament and 1 Brazilian League. In 1994, they once again won the State and the Brazilian Leagues. Until the end of the decade, they would win one more State League (1996), one Copa do Brasil (1998), one Copa Mercosul (1998), one Rio-São Paulo Tournament (2000), one Copa dos Campeões (2000), and the most important title, the 1999 Copa Libertadores. Therefore, in 8 years (93-2000), Palmeiras won 2 continental titles, 4 national trophies, 3 state leagues and 2 interstate tournaments - totalizing 11 major titles.
The coach appointed to start this new era of the club was Luxemburgo, who had done good works for Bragantino, winning the Serie B in 1989 and the 1990 São Paulo State League. He stayed at the club from 1993 to 1994, and in 1996.
1993-94: back-to-back State and Brazilian League titles
The 16-year title drought ended in the 1993 State League final against their archrival Corinthians. On the 1st leg, a 0-1 defeat, with a historical teasing by Corinthians' forward Viola, who imitated a pig when celebrating his goal. On the return leg, Palmeiras smashed them with a 4-0 victory (6mn33 video), with goals from Evair (2x), Edilson and Zinho.
Two months later, they won the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, again against Corinthians (2-0 and 0-0). In the Brazilian League, Palmeiras dominated with 81% of points, and only 2 defeats in 22 matches. In the final against Vitória, two victories: 1-0 away with a goal from Edilson, and 2-0 at home, with goals from Evair and Edmundo. Palmeiras became Brazilian champions for the 7th time, the first club to achieve so - the second would be Santos in 2002, then Corinthians in 2017 and Flamengo in 2019.
Four Palmeiras' players were elected to the League Best XI: Antônio Carlos, Roberto Carlos, César Sampaio and Edmundo.
Of the 1993 team, three great players were there since 1991: César Sampaio, Amaral and Evair. Parmalat brought Antônio Carlos, Cléber, Roberto Carlos, Mazinho, Edílson, Zinho and Edmundo. All of them (except Amaral, Cléber and Evair) played at least 25 matches for the Brazil NT, with two winning the 1994 World Cup (Zinho, Mazinho), three reaching the 1998 World Cup final (Roberto Carlos, César Sampaio, Edmundo) and two winning the 2002 World Cup (Roberto Carlos, Edilson).
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Antônio Carlos 1993-95 58 5 37 3 -
Cléber 1993-99 372 21 13 - -
Roberto Carlos 1993-95 162 20 126 12 3 (1998, 2002, 2006)
Amaral 1991-97 107 3 12 - -
César Sampaio 1991-94, 99-00 304 25 47 6 1 (1998)
Mazinho 1992-94 127 2 35 - 1 (1994)
Edílson 1993-95 151 59 25 6 1 (2002)
Zinho 1992-94, 97-99, 01-02 460 95 57 7 1 (1994)
Edmundo 1993-95, 06-07 269 141 39 10 1 (1998)
Evair 1991-94, 99 245 126 11 5 -
In 1994, the team increased with the arrivals of Rincón, from América de Cali, Flávio Conceição, from Rio Branco and Rivaldo, from Mogi Mirim.
They began the season winning the 1994 State League, gathering 78% of the points, and losing only three times in 30 matches.
In the 1994 Brazilian League, Palmeiras led the 1st stage and then won 5 of the 6 knock-out matches. They beat Bahia twice in the QF (2-1, 2-1), and the strong Guarani of Luizão, Djalminha and Amoroso twice in the SF (3-1, 2-1).
In the big final against Corinthians, Rivaldo opened the score with this nice goal at '45. He scored again at '63, and Edmundo this nice 3-0 goal at '65. The match ended 3-1, and Palmeiras only needed a tie in the 2nd leg - which ended 1-1, with Rivaldo scoring the tie at '81.
Palmeiras were back-to-back Brazilian League champions, and had now 8 National League titles, a record only reached in 2004 by Santos.
Four Palmeiras' players were elected to the League's Best XI: Cléber, Roberto Carlos, Zinho and Rivaldo.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Rincón (Colombia) 1994, 96-97 93 30 84 17 3 (1990, 1994, 1998)
Flávio Conceição 1994-96 103 5 45 4 -
Rivaldo 1994-96 97 78 74 37 2 (1998, 2002)
However, in the 1994 Copa Libertadores, Palmeiras were knocked out by São Paulo in the ro16 (0-0, 1-2), but they applied a sonorous 6-1 victory against Boca Juniors, with this great goal by Roberto Carlos, assisted by Evair.
The team got dismantled, and in 1995 they only finished 2nd in the State League, 5th in the Brazilian League, and got epically knocked out in the Copa Libertadores quarter-finals against Grêmio (0-5, 5-1).
The 1996 superteam: 102 goals/30 matches and State League champions
In 1996, the coach Luxemburgo returned to Palmeiras, after a year span at Flamengo.
From the 1993-94 Palmeiras squad, Velloso, Cléber, Amaral, Flavio Conceição and Rivaldo remained.
New stars arrived at the club: Cafu from Real Zaragoza, Júnior from Vitória, Müller from Kashiwa Reysol, and Luizão and Djalminha from Guarani.
Together, they gathered 92% of the points, winning 27 of the 30 State League matches, scoring 102 goals and conceding only 19. Since a 100%-rate title campaign in 1932, the closest a team got to this 92% rate record were 1961 and 1965 Pelé's Santos with 87%, 1945/1953 São Paulo, 1939/1951 Corinthians and 1933/1934/1942/1947 Palmeiras with 88%, and 1946 São Paulo with 90%.
In terms of goals scored, they rank #9 in the history of the tournament, and have the highest record since 1962.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Cafu 1995-97 101 13 149 5 4 (1994, 1998, 2002, 2006)
Júnior 1996-00 337 20 22 1 1 (2002)
Müller 1995-96 69 38 59 12 3 (1986, 1990, 1994)
Luizão 1996-97 91 56 17 3 1 (2002)
Djalminha 1996-97 83 45 14 5 -
With the departures of Flávio Conceição, Rivaldo and Müller, Palmeiras had a certain quality drop. Nevertheless, they still finished 2nd to Cruzeiro in the Copa do Brasil (1-1, 1-2).
Luxemburgo left at the end of the season for a bigger salary at Santos. He won 149 of 232 matches (64% win rate), lost 36 matches (16%), and had an overall rate of 71%.
The 1997 season was a bit below due to the lack of titles, but Palmeiras finished 2nd on the league, and reached the semi-finals of the Copa do Brasil, of the State League and of the Rio-São Paulo Tournament. But it was the arrival of the coach Scolari, the Felipão, in mid-1997 that would ignite Palmeiras into higher flights.
1998-2000: the Felipão (Scolari) Era
In this period, Palmeiras won 2 continental titles (1998 Mercosul, 1999 Libertadores), 2 national cups (1998 Copa do Brasil, 2000 Copa dos Campeões) and 1 regional league (2000 Rio-São Paulo Tournament). They also finished 2nd in 1 club world cup (1999 Intercontinental Cup), 3 continental cups (1999 and 2000 Copa Mercosul, 2000 Libertadores) and 1 state league (1999 Paulista).
With the 1996-97 team dismantled, Scolari rebuilt the team by using more Marcos, Roque Júnior and Galeano, and bringing Arce, Junior Baiano, Oséas, Paulo Nunes, Euller and of course, the maestro number 10 Alex - the most capped Brazilian player (49) not to be called to a World Cup.
Player Period Apps Goals Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Marcos 1992-2012 534 - 29 - 1 (2002)
Roque Júnior 1995-00 206 15 48 2 1 (2002)
Júnior Baiano 1998-99 72 16 25 2 1 (1998)
Arce (Paraguay) 1998-02 242 57 61 5 2 (1998, 2002)
Galeano 1989-02 477 27 - - -
Oséas 1997-99 172 65 2 - -
Paulo Nunes 1998-99 138 73 2 - -
Euller 1997-00 115 39 7 3 -
Alex 1997-00, 2002 200 60 49 12 -
The team lacked the offensive talent and quality of the previous generations, but had a more solid defense. Palmeiras supporters wanted the Copa Libertadores more than anything - their state rivals Santos and São Paulo had two already, as well as Grêmio, while Flamengo, Vasco and Cruzeiro had one each. Scolari had the experience of winning the Libertadores in 1995, with Grêmio, along with the Paraguayan right-back Arce and the forward Paulo Nunes that he brought to Palmeiras.
The first step was the 1998 Copa do Brasil, which would give one Libertadores spot. Palmeiras didn't have difficulties until the semi-finals against Santos: they tied 1-1 at home, and Santos opened the score in the return leg. With these two nice goals, Palmeiras overcame the score 2-1 and left with a 2-2 tie that put them on the final, against Cruzeiro. They lost the 1st leg 0-1 away, and opened the score at '12 with Paulo Nunes in the 2nd leg. At '89, Oséas scored the second and title goal after a free-kick, as Palmeiras became Copa do Brasil champions for the first time.
Later that year, Palmeiras destroyed their Copa Mercosul group: 2-1 Independiente (Argentina), 5-0 Nacional (Uruguay), 2-1 U. de Chile (Chile), 3-0 Independiente (Argentina), 3-1 Nacional (Uruguay), 1-0 U. de Chile (Chile). Highlights to this assist by left-back Júnior against Nacional from Uruguay.
With their reserves, they beat Boca Juniors 3-1 in Brazil, and tied 1-1 in Argentina, for the quarter-finals. Olimpia from Paraguay didn't offer problems in the semis: 2-0 and 1-0 to Palmeiras. In the final against Cruzeiro, Palmeiras lost 1-2 away in the 1st leg. At home in the 2nd leg, Cruzeiro opened the score at '3, but Palmeiras overcame with Cléber at '8, Oséas at '52 and Paulo Nunes at '85. On the 3rd match, this goal from Arce at '62, at home, gave Palmeiras their first continental-second tier title, the 1998 Copa Mercosul.
The 1999 Copa Libertadores title
After finishing 2nd twice in their golden era (1961, 1968), Palmeiras finally conquered South America, with 7W-2D-5L.
Palmeiras shared their group stage with archrival Corinthians and the Paraguayans Cerro Porteño and Olimpia. At that time, three teams would advance, and Palmeiras qualified in the 2nd place, behind Corinthians.
In the ro16, they met the current champions Vasco, of Juninho, Ramón, Donizete and Luizão. They only tied 1-1 at home, and saw Vasco open the score at the Maracanã. Palmeiras scored twice, before conceding the second goal. In the second half, Palmeiras scored twice again, and won the match 4-2.
The derby against Corinthians in the quarter-finals saw two same results: 2-0 and 0-2. Their rival could have scored once in the 1st leg though, at '78, if this crazy shot that hit the upper post and then the back of goalkeeper Marcos had gone a few centimeters into the other side. In the penalties, Palmeiras won 4-2, with Dinei missing the target and Marcos saving Vampeta's shot.
In the semis against River Plate, Palmeiras left Argentina with a 0-1 defeat. At home, in Brazil, Alex opened the score with this great goal, and two minutes later, Palmeiras scored the second with Roque Junior. In the 2nd half, Marcos kept the goal safe, and Alex closed the Argentine coffin with this fine touch.
In the big final against Deportivo Cali, they lost the first leg away 0-1 like in the semis. At home, Palmeiras opened the score only at '65, from this penalty kick, but Deportivo tied 5 minutes later, also from a penalty kick. Five minutes later, however, Palmeiras scored the second with Oséas, and the title would be decided in the penalties.
Palmeiras missed the first shot with Zinho, hitting the upper post, while Deportivo scored. Both teams scored the second and third shots. Palmeiras scored the fourth, and Deportivo hit the right post. Euller scored the fifth, and Zapata lost Deportivo's final penalty. Palmeiras conquered South America for the first time in their history.
This title qualified Palmeiras to the 1999 Intercontinental Cup in Japan, against European champions Manchester United.
Palmeiras played a far better match than the Red Devils, but this unfortunate mistake by goalkeeper Marcos let them open the score at '35. Palmeiras also had this wrongly disallowed goal at '50, and Oséas missed this absurd opportunity at '74.
In 2000, Palmeiras kept the good shape, and began the season winning the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, beating 4-0 the strong Vasco of Edmundo and Romario in the final.
Five months later, they won the Copa dos Campeões, after beating Cruzeiro (3-1, 1-1), Flamengo (1-2, 1-0) and Sport (2-1), therefore picking a spot in the 2001 Copa Libertadores.
But the peak of the season was the Libertadores, which they finished in the 2nd place, losing to Boca Juniors in the final (2-2, 0-0), in the penalties (2-4).
First, Saint Marcos (Palmeiras goalkeeper), saved two penalties in a clutch moment against Peñarol in the ro16.
In the semis, the biggest derby in South American history: Palmeiras met their archrival Corinthians, current back-to-back Brazilian League champions, of the stars Dida, Kléber, Vampeta, Ricardinho, Marcelinho Carioca, Edilson and Luizão, once again in the knock-outs, just like in 1999. The first leg was a crazy 4-3 match in Corinthians' favor and the second leg, another crazy 3-2 match in Palmeiras favor. In the penalties, nobody had missed their shot, until Corinthians biggest idol, Marcelinho Carioca, had his penalty saved by Saint Marcos, who put Palmeiras in the final. No other derby played in South America have been higher than Corinthians x Palmeiras encounters in the 1999 and 2000 Copa Libertadores knock-out stages.
Unfortunately, the final against Boca Juniors was a refereeing disgrace: Boca had one goal wrongly disallowed and Palmeiras had at least two penalties not awarded in the 2nd leg at home, which ended 0-0, leading to penalties. Palmeiras played better football, while Boca parked the bus.
2001-2013: end of Parmalat Era, and humble times
In this period, Palmeiras got relegated twice (2002, 2012), won 1 State League (2008) and 1 Copa do Brasil (2012).
The peak of this period was the controversial elimination by Riquelme's Boca in the 2001 Copa Libertadores semi-finals: on the 1st leg in Argentina (2-2), the referee invented this penalty to Boca, which Schelotto scored, and he didn't concede a clear penalty in Palmeiras' favor on Fernando, sending the player off for "simulation". Boca were a great team, but it is generally agreed in Brazil - even by rivals - that Palmeiras was better, and if not for the referees shameful displays in 2000 and 2001, they would very likely end up with 3 consecutive Libertadores titles (1999, 2000, 2001).
In 2002, Alex scored this masterpiece of a goal against Rogério Ceni's São Paulo.
In 2009, Palmeiras led the Brazilian League for 19 rounds, but ended up in the 5th place, not even qualifying to the Copa Libertadores.
2014-today
In 2014, centenary year of the club, their new stadium Allianz Parque was inaugurated.
In 2015, Palmeiras won their 3rd Copa do Brasil title on the penalties (4-3) against Santos, in a crazy final. The 1st leg in Santos ended 0-1, with their rival missing the opportunity of the century at '95. In the 2nd leg, Palmeiras scored their second goal (2-0) at '84, but Santos scored at '86, leading it to the penalties, won 4-3 by Palmeiras.
In 2016 and 2018, Palmeiras won their 9th and 10th Brazilian League titles, a national record. They were led by the league MVP Gabriel Jesus in 2016 and by the most recent club idol Dudu in 2016 and 2018. They also finished second in 2017, and reached the Copa Libertadores semi-finals in 2018, losing to Boca Juniors (0-2, 2-2).
Player Period Apps Goals Assists Brazil NT caps Goals World Cup att.
Gabriel Jesus 2015-16 83 28 10 39 18 1 (2018)
Dudu 2015-20 305 70 75 3 1 -
As of 2020, the club won the State League (0-0, 1-1, p.k. 4-3) after 12 years, against their archrival Corinthians, coached by Luxemburgo and led by the young midfielder Patrick de Paula. Gabriel Menino and Gabriel Verón are the other young bets of the club for this season.
To this day, Palmeiras has the 4th largest fanbase in Brazil with 12 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 28.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.14 10:22 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 9/12: Santos

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 9/12: Santos (State: São Paulo), founded in 1912

State rivals: São Paulo, Palmeiras, Corinthians

Stadium: Vila Belmiro

Mascot: Whale

Major achievements: 2 Intercontinental Cup (1962, 1963), 3 Copa Libertadores (1962, 1963, 2011), 8 Brazilian Leagues (1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 2002, 2004), 1 Copa do Brasil (2010)

State League titles: 22 (Against Corinthians' 30, Palmeiras' 23, São Paulo's 21)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO SANTOS ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
The Football Kingdom
There's an urban legend that says that a lightning never strikes the same place twice. But apparently this legend doesn't apply to the physics of Santos, a humble and small port city on the coast of São Paulo. There, a young kid named Pelé, would come up to become football's greatest legend, a man that could stop a war with his foot, a man that transcended all sports combined. In that same city of Santos - with a probable electromagnetic sequel caused by the lightning of Pelé - were raised the raw talents of the princes Robinho and Neymar. Curiously enough, Marta, the Queen of Football, and Falcão, the King of Futsal, also stepped foot and left a legacy at Santos, the football kingdom of the world. Let the story begin!
The early years and the 100-goal team at 1929 São Paulo State League
Santos was founded in 1912, but only on the late 1920s the team would become a threat to the State League teams from the state capital, São Paulo. Indeed, in 1927, the team led by Araken Patusca and Feitiço scored 100 goals in 16 matches, an average of 6,25 goals/match, a world record in official competitions until today. However, they lost the title in the last round to Palmeiras. These two players would make history in Santos: Feitiço scored 214 goals and is the Santos 5th top goalscorer of all time, while Araken Patusca scored 184, and is the 7th.
In 1935, Santos would win their first State League title, after beating Corinthians 2-0.
The Pelé Era: the greatest team in the world, the team that stopped a war in Africa, Os Santásticos
Before Pelé arrived, Santos had recently won the 1955 and 1956 State Leagues, with a great team led by Brazil NT forwards Del Vecchio, Pepe, Pagão, Jair, and the midfielder Zito.
After Pelé left, Santos had added 25 more trophies to their cabinet: 2 Intercontinental Cups, 2 Copa Libertadores, 6 Brazilian Leagues, 10 State Leagues, 3 Rio-São Paulo Tournament, 1 Supercopa Sudamericana and 1 Recopa Intercontinental.
During Pelé's time in the 1960s, Santos scored around 3000 goals, with more than 1000 scored by the king, in both official competitions (643 goals) and friendlies (448 goals) for Santos. Actually, counting only teams from Europe big6, Pelé scored 103 goals in those high-level friendlies, as you can see here. If we count all European clubs and National Teams, Pelé scored 163 goals. He also scored 87 goals against 1st division Brazilian teams, 116 goals against South American teams and National Teams, 44 goals against African/Asian/Central American National Teams, totalizing 410 goals in high-level friendlies - all data details here. At that time, friendlies were highly hyped, and there were more Europeans attending friendlies vs. Santos than attending their own national leagues matches - attendance data here.
League 1960s League att. average Friendlies vs Santos att. average
England 29.180 34.800 (10 matches)
Spain ??? 48.100 (9 matches)
Italy 21.056 39.620 (33 matches)
Germany 24.160 31.700 (15 matches)
Portugal ??? 34.000 (3 matches)
France 8.400 32.300 (8 matches)
Overall 20.700 36.750 (78 matches)
Pelé arrived at Santos in 1956, at the age of 15. In that same year arrived the right-wing Dorval, aged 21. In 1958 arrived the centre-forward Coutinho, aged 14, and in 1960 the attacking midfielder, Mengálvio, aged 20. They all joined the left-wing Pepe, at Santos since 1954, to form the famous quintet that dominated the world: Dorval, Mengálvio, Coutinho, Pelé and Pepe.
Player Apps Goals Brazil NT Caps Goals World Cup titles
Dorval (1956-67) 612 198 7 - -
Mengálvio (1960-68) 371 28 14 1 1 (1962)
Coutinho (1958-68) 457 368 15 6 1 (1962)
Pelé (1956-74) 1116 1091 92 77 3 (1958, 1962, 1970)
Pepe (1954-69) 750 405 40 22 2 (1958, 1962)
But everything started in the 1957 São Paulo State League, when Pelé was topscorer with 36 goals, at the age of 16. There wasn't a National League until 1959, due to Brazil's huge size and weak infrastructure, so the players would shine in the State Leagues, which lasted the entire year. Pelé, at 17, broke the São Paulo State League record (until today), scoring 58 goals in 38 matches, in 1958 - which brought him to the Brazil NT and to the 1958 World Cup. After winning it, him and Santos started travelling in exhibition tours to make cash and challenge the best teams around the world in "friendly" matches.
In 1959, Santos took part in the 1st Brazilian League edition, qualifying as São Paulo State League champions. However, they lost the final to Bahia (2-3, 2-0, 1-3).
As Santos lost the 1959 São Paulo State League finals to Palmeiras, they didn't qualify to the 1960 Brazilian League.
However, they won the 1960 São Paulo State League and qualified to the 1961 Brazilian League. From 1961 to 1965, Santos won 5 consecutive Brazilian Leagues, a record until today. However, Santos would always enter in the semi-finals and only play 4-5 matches to be crowned champions - this rule would only be modified from the 1967 Brazilian League.
Year Champion Runner-up Results
1961 Brazilian League Santos Bahia 1-1, 5-1
1962 Brazilian League Santos Botafogo 4-3, 1-3, 5-0
1963 Brazilian League Santos Bahia 6-0, 2-0
1964 Brazilian League Santos Flamengo 4-1, 0-0
1965 Brazilian League Santos Vasco 5-1, 1-0
Highlights to the 1962 final between Santos and Botafogo, which had 11 players from the 1962 World Cup won by Brazil: Gylmar, Mauro, Zito, Mengálvio, Coutinho, Pelé, Pepe (Santos), Nilton Santos, Garrincha, Amarildo, Zagallo (Botafogo). Santos won the decisive match 5-0 at the Maracanã, with this goal from Pelé.
In 1962, Santos also participated in their first Copa Libertadores, qualified as the 1961 Brazilian League champions. Santos topped their group stage against Cerro Porteño (Paraguay) (9-1, 1-1) and Municipal (Bolivia) (6-1, 4-3). In the semis against Universidad Católica (Chile), Santos tied 1-1 away, and won 1-0 at home. The final would be against Peñarol (Uruguay). Santos won the first leg 2-1 in Uruguay, with two goals from Coutinho, in a great comeback. In the 2nd leg in Brazil, a crazy story: after a big and violent confusion, the match was restarted and Peñarol scored the third goal at '51 (2-3). Santos only needed a tie and scored it at '67, the match ended 3-3 and Santos celebrated the title. However, the referee wrote down in the match report that the match was over at '51 - he was scared to really end it, so he kept the match going until the end, but it wasn't counting for him, so he (and CONMEBOL) declared Peñarol the winners. This forced a third match, in neutral Argentina, which Santos dominated and won 3-0, with two goals from Pelé and one own goal from Peñarol. Santos were for the first time, and the first Brazilian team, crowned South American champions.
This title qualified Santos to the 1962 Intercontinental Cup, against the European champions, Benfica. The 1st leg at the Maracanã ended 3-2 for Santos, with 2 goals from Pelé and one from Coutinho. Before the 2nd match in Lisbon, Benfica announced that they were selling tickets for the third match, certain that they would win at home. However, Pelé destroyed the match with a splendid hat-trick, an assist, nutmegs and dribbling past the entire Benfica defense to score one of his goals. The match ended 5-2 before a crowd of 73.000 portuguese fans, and Pelé proved once again he was still football's king, as he and Santos were crowned club world champions for the first time. Highlights of the match here (4mn56 video).
The next year, in 1963, Santos would once again win the Copa Libertadores. Being the current champions, they entered in the semi-final stage against the legendary Botafogo of Garrincha, Didi and Nilton Santos. The 1st leg ended 1-1, with Pelé scoring a tie at '90. The 2nd match at the Maracanã ended 4-0 to Santos, with Pelé scoring the first goal, also the second goal from a header, and the third from a penalty kick. Lima scored the fourth, with an assist from Pepe. Santos were once again qualified to the Copa Libertadores final.
They would meet Boca Juniors, from Argentina. In the 1st leg at the Maracanã, Santos opened 3-0 with two goals from Coutinho - notably this one - and one from Lima. Boca, however, scored twice with Sanfilippo and the match ended 3-2.
The atmosphere at La Bombonera for the 2nd leg was intense. 50.000 Argentine kept singing "Pelé hijo de puta, macaquitos del Brasil" (Pelé son of a b., little monkeys from Brazil). Then Boca opened the score at '46 with Sanfilippo. However, 4 minutes later, Pelé assisted Coutinho to score the tie. Later, Pelé mocked the Boca team by playing with the ball at Boca's GK hand. And at '82, Pelé scored the winning goal and celebrated with euphory and anger: Santos were back-to-back Copa Libertadores champions.
Santos were once again qualified to the Intercontinental Cup, and would face Milan. Santos lost the 1st leg 2-4, at San Siro, in Milan. In the 2nd leg at the Maracanã, Milan went to half-time winning 2-0. A heavy rain began and the pitch became a mud. Santos, without Pelé, counted on Pepe's free-kick to score their first goal. Almir and Lima scored Santos second and third goals, at '54 and '65. Pepe, again from a free-kick, scored the fourth at '68, forcing a third match.
In the third and final match, at the Maracanã again, Maldini committed a penalty and was sent off. Still without Pelé, Dalmo scored the 1-0 winning goal, crowning Santos once again club world champions.
Santos wouldn't win the Copa Libertadores again in the 1960s. They reached the semis in 1964 and 1965, and refused to play it in 1966, 1967 and 1969 - not only it was financially unattractive, but also too violent and with tendencious refereeing. So Santos prefered to travel around the globe and make cash to pay their expensive team.
The "Santos Globetrotters", would tour the world and smash whoever and wherever. 7-1 Internazionale, 5-0 Roma, 6-2 Napoli, 3-0 Lazio, 5-1 Lecce, 5-1 Barcelona, 6-0 Hamburg, 9-1 TSV München 1860, 6-3 Wolfsburg, 5-2 Eintracht Frankfurt, 4-2 Hertha Berlin, 6-4 Fortuna Düsseldorf, 5-0 Arminia Bielefield, 6-3 Benfica, 4-2 Sheffield Wednesday, 4-2 Newcastle, 5-3 Reims, 6-1 Racing, 6-2 Lyon, 3-0 Toulouse, 3-0 Feyenoord, 5-0 Enschede, 3-0 Peñarol, 8-3 Racing (Argentina), 4-0 Independiente, 4-1 Boca Juniors, 4-0 River Plate...
In official competitions, Pelé's Santos played 6 matches against Europeans, with 5W-1L:
Competition Result Goals
1962 Intercontinental Cup Santos 3-2 Benfica Pelé (2x), Santana (2x), Coutinho
1962 Intercontinental Cup Santos 5-2 Benfica Pelé (3x), Eusébio, Coutinho, Pepe, Santana
1963 Intercontinental Cup Santos 2-4 Milan Pelé (2x), Amarildo (2x), Trapattoni, Mora
1963 Intercontinental Cup Santos 4-2 Milan Pepe (2x), Mazzola, Almir, Lima, Mora
1963 Intercontinental Cup Santos 1-0 Milan Dalmo
1968 Recopa Intercontinental Santos 1-0 Internazionale Toninho Guerreiro
However, Santos wasn't invincible, and Palmeiras stopped them from winning 12 consecutive State Leagues (1958-69), by beating Santos in 1959, 1963 and 1966.
1969: the year that Santos stopped a war in Africa and that Pelé scored his 1000th goal
On the 4th February 1969, Pelé's Santos stopped an ongoing war in Nigeria. The civil war had been going on in the Biafra region since March 1967, and it lasted until January 1970, with the separatists' defeat. 2 million people died in the conflict.
There was a global effort trying to stop the violent repression of the Nigerian government against the Biafras. Artists like Joan Baez, Jimi Hendrix and John Lennon, authorities like the Pope Paul VI and the United Nations tried do contain the conflict, without success.
But Santos did. As the team was touring in Africa, they were invited by the Nigerian government to play in Benin. A first and only cease-fire was declared so Santos could move from the hotel to the stadium and then back to the hotel. Santos won the match 2-1, and left the country the next day, as the war restarted as soon as they were gone, lasting 11 more months.
On the 19th November 1969, Pelé scored his 1000th goal, against Vasco, the team he supported as a child, at the Maracanã. Journalists from all over the world had been following Santos matches, waiting for the 1000th goal to happen, which he did on his 912th career match.
By the end of the decade, Santos team had changed, but was still strong, notably counting with the right-back Carlos Alberto Torres, the midfielder Clodoaldo and the forwards Edu and Toninho Guerreiro, all of them champions in the 1970 World Cup, except for the latter. They notably won the 1968 Brazilian League, the 1968 Supercopa Sudamericana and the 1968 Recopa Intercontinental.
My personal favorite goal of this era is this one by Toninho Guerreiro, after a rainbow flick assist by Kaneko, in 1968.
The Pelé Era last title was the São Paulo State League title of 1973. Pelé left in October 1974, having scored 1091 goals in 1116 matches for Santos.
1978-1984: the Meninos da Vila (Vila Boys) and the last title before the drought
In 1978, a new term was coined to the players produced by Santos youth system, or just young players that were bought: the Meninos da Vila (Vila Boys), that won the 1978 State League. The 1st generation counted with Juary, João Paulo, Pita, Nilton Batata and Ailton Lira.
Meninos da Vila Apps Goals
Juary 229 101
João Paulo 412 103
Pita 408 55
Nilton Batata 249 36
Ailton Lira 182 37
In the 1980s, Santos built a good team that reached the final of the 1983 Brazilian League, and won the 1984 State League - Santos last title before the drought.
1984-2002: 18-year title drought
In this period, Santos reached the 1995 Brazilian League final - led by the idol Giovanni -, as well as the 2000 State League final. Santos won the 1997 Rio-São Paulo Tournament and the 1998 Copa Conmebol, but they were minor trophies and didn't count as the end of the drought, that would last until 2002.
Nevertheless, Santos became the first team in the world to score 10.000 goals - the record took place in January 1998, with a goal scored by Jorginho.
In December 2000, Santos was elected by FIFA the Club of the Century in South America, and placed 5th in the world, behind Real Madrid, Manchester United, Bayern and Barcelona.
2002: Diego & Robinho and the 2nd Meninos da Vila generation
In the last season of the Brazilian League with knock-out stages (round-robin were introduced in 2003), Santos were broken and bet once again on their own DNA: youth system and offensive football. Led by 17-year-old Diego and 18-year-old Robinho, and with great young players Maurinho (24), Alex (20), Renato (23) and Elano (21), as well as great experienced players like Fábio Costa (25), Léo (27) and Alberto (27), Santos qualified on the 8th and last spot to the quarter-finals - after an exciting 1st stage, even leading the league at some point, but dropping a lot in quality towards the end.
In the knock-out stage, Santos won 5 of the 6 matches before becoming champions. In the quarter-finals, against the scary São Paulo of Kaká and Luís Fabiano, Santos won both legs: 3-1 at home and then a 2-1 comeback away, with Diego scoring twice, one of them the winning goal on the 2nd leg.
In the semi-finals, Santos defeated Grêmio 3-0 at home, with a great show from Robinho, who got Grêmio's CB sent off and then scored this great goal. Alberto scored twice, notably this backheel one. In the 2nd leg, a 0-1 defeat was enough to put Santos in the league final.
The final would be against Parreira's Corinthians. In the first leg, Diego brilliantly assisted Alberto to open the score, and then Robinho at '88 also brilliantly assissted Renato to close the 2-0 score.
The final 2nd leg was monumental. Corinthians needed to win by a 2-goal difference to be the champions. It started badly for Santos, with Diego leaving injured with less than five minutes. But at '35, Robinho produced one of the most iconic moves of the football world in 2002, the 8 Pedaladas (8 Stepovers), after which he suffered a penalty, which he himself converted into a goal dedicated to Diego. Corinthians now needed 3 goals, and at '75 they scored the first, then at '84 they scored the second. Total fear in Santos supporters. But 4 minutes later at '88, the heir of the king, the prince Robinho carried the ball from the midfield until the right side of the box to assist Elano in Santos second goal. But it wasn't over yet, and at '92, him again, the prince Robinho left two Corinthians' CB completely lost in a quick body turnaround to assist Léo to score the 3rd and winning goal. The perfect match was over, Santos won 3-2, and were crowned Brazilian League champions. Highlights to Santos goalkeeper Fabio Costa who had this absurd performance (2mn33s video) and to Santos coach Emerson Leão, the man who chose to bet in these young players.
2003-2004: the show must go on
In 2003, Santos, Diego and Robinho were the Brazilian trend. They kept their high-level football with the addition of Ricardo Oliveira in the attack, and finished 2nd in the Copa Libertadores - losing to Boca Juniors - and 2nd in the Brazilian League - dominated by Cruzeiro.
In 2004, Santos won the Brazilian League again, their 8th and most recent Brazilian League title. With the departures of Renato, Diego and Ricardo Oliveira to Europe, Santos brought Ricardinho and Deivid from Middlesbrough and Bordeaux, and the international coach Luxemburgo from Cruzeiro.
It worked greatly, and led by Robinho and Elano, they won the league on the 46th and last round, after beating Vasco 2-1. It was a very dramatic league in all possible ways, and against everything and everyone, Santos were once again Brazilian Champions.
Meninos da Vila Apps (Santos) Goals (Santos) Clubs in Europe
Diego 133 38 Porto, Werder Bremen, Atlético Madrid
Robinho 253 111 Real Madrid, Milan, Man. City
Elano 322 68 Shakhtar, Man. City
Renato 424 33 Sevilla
Alex 103 20 Chelsea, Milan, PSG
2009-2013: Neymar & Ganso, the 3rd Meninos da Vila generation
After the 2004 team was dismantled, Santos won two State League titles in 2006 and 2007, besides finishing 2nd in the 2007 Brazilian League and reaching the semi-finals in the 2007 Copa Libertadores, led by international star Zé Roberto.
In March 2009, Neymar made his debut at the age of 17. With midfielder Ganso (aged 19), they finished 2nd in the State League, losing to Ronaldo Nazário's Corinthians.
In 2010, the Cirque du Soleil Santos show began. With the addition of Robinho (on a 6-month loan from Man. City) to the front line, the team reached a historical mark of 111 goals in 34 matches on the title campaigns of the 2010 State League and 2010 Copa do Brasil. Overall in the year, Santos scored 176 goals, and Neymar 42 goals. The team played for fun and brilliant goals were a constant, notably: Robinho's backheel goal against Rogério Ceni's São Paulo, Ganso finesse assist to Robinho against Grêmio, Neymar's little-stop penalty goal against Ceni's São Paulo, Ganso's lob against Monte Azul, Robinho's lob against Bragantino, Ganso's backheel assist to Neymar's goal against Santo André, Alex Sandro's goal against Cruzeiro, Wesley's goal against Grêmio, Ganso long distance goal against Grêmio, Neymar dribbling past the whole Santo André defense goal, Neymar's assist to André against São Paulo, and obviously, Robinho air backheel assist to Neymar against Santo André.
However, the epic 2010 team only lasted 6 months: Wesley, André and Robinho left to Europe, and Ganso got severely injured. With the team dismantled, they ended on the 8th position in the league.
2011 Copa Libertadores: the third continental dream title
Santos started the season with the 2011 State League title, beating Corinthians in the final (0-0, 2-1).
Santos also counted with the return of Elano for the 2011 Copa Libertadores, but the team started badly: 2 draws and 1 loss, so Santos needed to win all the next 3 matches to advance. And they did, without much problems: 3-2 Colo-Colo (Chile), 2-1 Cerro Porteño (Paraguay) and 3-1 Táchira (Venezuela). Highlights to Neymar's dribbling-goal against Colo-Colo and Danilo's long-distance goal against Cerro Porteño.
In the round of 16, Santos met América (Mexico) and beat them 1-0 at home in the 1st leg. The 2nd leg, in Mexico, was a 0-0 tie, with goalkeeper Rafael Cabral having an exceptional match.
In the quarter-finals, against Once Caldas (Colombia), Santos had no problem beating them 1-0 in Colombia, and then tying 1-1 at home, with this great goal from Neymar.
In the semi-finals, Santos beat Cerro Porteño 1-0 at home, with this great assist from Neymar to Edu Dracena, and had a restful 2nd leg after opening 2-0 and leaving Paraguay with a 3-3 tie and qualified to the finals.
In the big final against Peñarol, Santos left the 1st leg with a 0-0 tie in Uruguay, with Peñarol having this goal bravely disallowed at '85. In the final 2nd leg, Santos pressured Peñarol at home, until Neymar opened the score at '46 with a brilliant shot, after a fine backheel-play by Ganso and ball-conducting by Arouca. At '68, Danilo scored one more, but Santos centre-back Durval scored an own goal at '79. On the last minute, Neymar almost scored the third, but the ball hit the post. At '93, the match ended, and after 48 years, Santos were the Copa Libertadores Champions, for the third time in their history.
Neymar was the MVP and second topscorer with 6 goals, at the age of 19. He was also elected the 2011 Brazilian League MVP, but Santos finished on the 10th place.
With this title, Santos qualified to the 2011 Club World Cup in Japan. They beat Kashiwa Reysol 3-1 in the semi-final, with this splendid goal from Neymar. However, they were completely dominated by Messi's Barcelona in the final, losing it 0-4.
In 2012, Santos had another great year, led by Neymar, Ganso and Elano. They started the season with the 2012 State League title, beating Guarani in the final (3-0, 4-2). They also reached the 2012 Copa Libertadores semi-finals, but got eliminated by Corinthians.
They also won the 2012 Recopa Sudamericana and finished 8th on the league.
Meninos da Vila Apps (Santos) Goals (Santos) Clubs in Europe
Neymar 230 138 Barcelona, PSG
Ganso 162 36 Sevilla, Amiens
André 94 41 Sporting
Rafael Cabral 190 - Napoli, Reading
Danilo 80 10 Porto, Real Madrid, Man. City, Juventus
Wesley 63 10 Werder Bremen
2013-today
Since the Neymar & Ganso Era ended in 2013, Santos has won 2 State League titles (2015, 2016), finished 2nd in the Brazilian League twice (2016, 2019) and in the Copa do Brasil once (2015), as well as revealing Rodrygo in 2018.
Santos represents the essence of Brazilian football DNA, which is offensive and beautiful football, a philosophy which made their youth system one of the most respected in the world. You can watch here some rare Pelé highlights, here some 2002-2005 Robinho's and here some 2009-2013 Neymar's.
Santos is one of the 3 Brazilian teams that has never been relegated.
To this day, Santos has a fanbase of 6 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 10.300, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.02 12:53 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 8/12: Corinthians

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 8/12: Corinthians (State: São Paulo), founded in 1910

State rivals: Palmeiras, São Paulo, Santos

Stadium: Arena Corinthians / Pacaembu (Old)

Mascot: Musketeer

Major achievements: 2 Club World Cup (2000, 2012), 1 Copa Libertadores (2012), 7 Brazilian Leagues (1990, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2015, 2017), 3 Copa do Brasil (1995, 2002, 2009)

State League titles: 30 (Against Palmeiras' 23, Santos' 22, São Paulo's 21)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO CORINTHIANS ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
The kings of São Paulo and the team of the people (1910-1954)
Corinthians was founded in 1910 by a group of factory workers in São Paulo, inspired by Corinthian FC, an English team that was going on an excursion in Brazil. From the first moment of Corinthians foundation, their president stated that they would be the "team of the people, and that the people would make the team". It was a manifest against the aristocratic trend of only allowing rich and white people into football clubs.
In Brazilian football early days, there wasn't a national league until 1959, so the teams would play inside their own state, in the State Leagues. In this São Paulo State League Era, Corinthians rose from nothing to become the most victorious team inside the state, with 15 titles, notably leaving behind their rivals Palmeiras (12), São Paulo (8), Santos (4), and also traditional teams from the amateur era such as Paulistano (11). If there was a national league in this period, Corinthians would certainly be a serious title contender, along with Fluminense (from Rio de Janeiro state league) and their archrival, Palmeiras.
Highlights to Corinthians early-1950s decade, when they won 2 State Leagues (1951, 1952), 3 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (1950, 1953, 1954) and 1 Pequeña Copa del Mundo in Venezuela (1953).
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place
1950 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco Portuguesa
1951 São Paulo State League Corinthians Palmeiras Portuguesa
1952 São Paulo State League Corinthians São Paulo Portuguesa
1953 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco São Paulo
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians Roma (Italy) Barcelona (Spain)
1954 Rio-São Paulo Corinthians Fluminense Palmeiras
Corinthians notably won, undefeated, the 1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo against Roma (Italy), Barcelona (Spain) and Caracas (Venezuela). Barcelona, of the Hungarian star Kubala, were the current Spanish and Latin Cup champions; Roma, 6th placed in the Serie A; and Caracas, the home guests. Corinthians won their 6 matches, as you can see below. The topscorers were Luizinho (Corinthians) and Kubala (Barcelona) with 5 goals each.
Tournament Match Goals
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-2 Barcelona (Spain) Luizinho (2), Kubala (1), Moreno (1), Carbone (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-1 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (1), Carbone (1), Aguirre (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Barcelona (Spain) Goiano (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-0 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (2)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-1 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (2), Cláudio (1), Galle (1)
Later in 1958, Corinthians provided the Brazilian National Team with two players in the World Cup title campaign, notably the legendary goalkeeper Gylmar, starter in 1958 and 1962. He played 395 matches for Corinthians, before moving to Santos in 1961.
1954-1977: the drought and the Rivellino Era
In this period, Corinthians went through their longest title drought of their history, without winning a single trophy. Technically, they won the 1966 Rio-São Paulo Tournament, but it had to be shared with 3 other teams due to a lack of dates to end it.
Between 1965 and 1974, Rivellino (born 1946), a creation of Corinthians youth system, was the team's main star. He played 474 matches for Corinthians, scoring 141 goals, and represented his club in the 1970 and 1974 World Cups. He never managed to win the then prestigious State League title, or even the National League, reaching the State League final just once, in 1974, losing to their archrival Palmeiras. He was "found guilty" of losing the final and was released from the club, sold to Fluminense. You can see some of Rivellino magical skills in this amazing skills-only video (3mn08s video).
In this difficult era, Corinthians also counted with legendary star Garrincha in 1966. However, his form was already declining at the age of 32, and he only appeared in 13 matches, scoring 2 goals.
Curiously enough, Pelé played professionaly from 1956 to 1977, almost the exact time Corinthians went trophyless. When Pelé began to shine in football, he used to say that he was rejected in a Corinthians trial in 1954, and therefore cursed that "while I (Pelé) play football, Corinthians will never be champions again". Pelé retired on the 1st of October 1977, and 12 days later, on the 13th October 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought was over, as they won the 1977 São Paulo State League, 1-0 against Ponte Preta, with a goal from Basilio, at minute 81.
1976: The Corinthians Invasion
A year before Corinthians drought was over, one of the biggest events in the history of Brazilian football took place, the Invasão Corinthiana. The 5th of December 1976, a one-match-only Brazilian League semi-final would happen in Rio de Janeiro, between the home guests Fluminense (of Rivellino, who left Corinthians in 1974) and Corinthians, from São Paulo, 450km away from Rio.
The hype was intense. Fluminense were the frank favorites: 10 of their starting 11 had already been capped to the Brazil NT, they were called the Tricolor Machine.
The Maracanã 146.000 capacity would be split half-half. 70.000 tickets were given to Corinthians by Fluminense, and they were sold out in less than 3 hours. Tens of thousands of Corinthianos started moving from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro 2 days before the match: by airplane, bus, car, motorcycle, bike, taxi, it didn't matter, the Rio-São Paulo highway was dominated by Corinthians supporters (pic). On Saturday 4th, one day before the match, the city and the Copacabana beach of Rio de Janeiro became a huge Corinthianos party. Hundreds and hundreds of black and white flags and shirts all over the city.
On the day of the match, the atmosphere inside the Maracanã was INTENSE (5mn video). More than ever, Corinthians needed to end that title drought. Inexplicably, Corinthians fanbase had their biggest growth during the 60s/70s title drought. That's why they say that only the Corinthians supporters know what it's like to be a Corinthiano, that's why they nicknamed themselves "the Sufferers". Because they are the legitimate team of the people.
The match started under a moderate rain, and the pitch wasn't at its best. Fluminense opened the score at '29, with this goal from Pintinho. Corinthians needed at least a goal to go to extratime, and found it at '29 with Russo, after a corner kick. The rain intensified, and the pitch turned into this horrible mud. Not much happened afterwards, and the match went to the penalty kicks. Corinthians GK Tobias saved Fluminense's 1st and 2nd p.k., while Corinthians scored all their 3 penalties, and Fluminense only 1 out of 3. Zé Maria then scored Corinthians 4th penalty and qualified his team to the 1976 Brazilian League final.
However, Corinthians lost the final 0-2 to Falcão's Internacional, playing away. But the epic Invasão Corinthiana of Rio de Janeiro would be forever remembered in the Brazilian football history - this very good 46mn documentary comes back to 1976 and also shows the 2000 (Rio de Janeiro) and 2012 (Japan) Club World Cup posterior invasions.
1977: the State League title and the end of the drought
In 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought finally came to an end, after they won the State League title. They played 48 matches, with 30W-6D-12L, cumulating 55% of the points. In the big final, they beat Ponte Preta 1-0, with Basílio scoring this eternal goal at '81.
It was Corinthians' 16th State League title, while their rivals had 18 (Palmeiras), 13 (Santos) and 11 (São Paulo) at that point. So, even without winning a State League title for 23 years, Corinthians was still fighting for São Paulo state title record.
1982-84: Socrates and the Corinthians Democracy
In the middle of the Brazilian military dictatorship, Corinthians chose to wave a flag in favor of democracy. It all began in April 1982, with the nomination of a sociologist, Adilson, to the football director job. Adilson liked to listen to the players, and along with politicized players such as Sócrates, Wladimir, Casagrande and Zenon, decided to establish an innovative democracy inside the club.
Basically, every decision (contracts, inside rules, etc) that was to be taken would be decided by voting. From the president to the average worker, all had the same right to vote, and the same vote weight. For example, thanks to this voting system, married players didn't need to sleep in hotels before matches with the rest of the team anymore. They would also use the Corinthians kit to spread political opinions in favor of democracy--such as the sayings "Diretas Já" ("Direct voting Now") and "Eu quero votar para presidente" ("I want to vote for president").
In April 1984, the Amendment Proposal For Direct Voting was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies, which collaborated to the departure of Sócrates to the Italian Serie A (Fiorentina), and to the end of the Corinthians Democracy. This talented generation won the São Paulo State Leagues of 1982 and 1983, and reached the 1982 and 1984 Brazilian League semi-finals.
This notable team provided the charming Brazil of 1982 (5mn46s video) with Sócrates, who played 265 matches for Corinthians, scoring 172 goals between 1978 and 1984.
1990: the first Brazilian League title
After winning the 1988 State League title, Corinthians won their first Brazilian League title in 1990. Led by midfielder Neto to the knock-out stages, Corinthians defeated Atlético Mineiro in the quarter-finals. In the 1st leg, they did a 2-1 comeback, with both goals from Neto: the first with a header and the second shooting from inside the box. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie put Corinthians in the semi-final stage against Bahia.
In the 1st leg of the semis, Bahia opened the scored, but Corinthians tied with an own goal. Neto scored the 2nd goal with his trademark style, the free-kick. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie was enough to put Corinthians in the final.
In the final, a derby between Corinthians and the São Paulo of Zetti, Cafu, Leonardo, Raí and the coach Telê Santana (former 1982 Brazil coach).
In the 1st leg, Wilson Mano scored the only goal of the match at '4. Fabinho (Corinthians) almost scored the 2nd after this brilliant run and conclusion, saved by Zetti, and Ronaldo (Corinthians GK), fantastic as always, kept Corinthians goal secured with great saves. In the final 2nd leg, Corinthians scored the only goal of the match at '54, after a great one-two between Fabinho and Tupãzinho, with the latter scoring the goal, and securing Corinthians first Brazilian League title.
Ronaldo (GK) and Marcelo Djian (CB) were both elected to the League's Best XI.
Corinthians kept the good shape and won 2 more State Leagues (1995, 1997) and 1 Copa do Brasil undefeated (1995), as well as 2nd place in the 1994 Brazilian League, with a new generation led by Viola and their eventual big idol, Marcelinho Carioca.
1998-2000: National legacy, champions of the World and the Copa Libertadores trauma
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place 4th place
1998 Brazilian League Corinthians Cruzeiro Santos Portuguesa
1999 State League Corinthians Palmeiras Santos São Paulo
1999 Brazilian League Corinthians Atlético Mineiro Vitória São Paulo
2000 Club World Cup Corinthians Vasco Necaxa (Mexico) Real Madrid (Spain)
Vampeta, Rincón, Marcelinho and Ricardinho. The high-level of this midfield make the hearing of their names sound like poetry. The best Corinthians of all-time counted with other monsters such as GK Dida, Paraguayan CB Gamarra, LB Kléber, and the FW duo Luizão and Edílson. 5 of these guys were with the Brazil NT in the 2002 World Cup.
In this period, Corinthians won the 1998 and 1999 Brazilian Leagues, the 2000 Club World Cup and the 1999 São Paulo State League.
Luxemburgo (eventual Real Madrid coach) was the man behind the creation of this superteam. In the 1998 Brazilian League, Corinthians qualified to the knock-out stages with the best campaign. They first sent Grêmio home in the quarter-finals; and then Santos in the semi-finals, after three exciting matches (4mn51s video) and this fine and decisive goal by Edilson at '57 of the 3rd semi-final match.
In the big final against Cruzeiro, Corinthians started badly on the 1st match (away), losing 0-2 at half-time, but recovered greatly with two goals and left with a 2-2 tie. The 2nd leg, at home, was a 1-1 tie, with Corinthians opening the score and Cruzeiro equalizing later. In the 3rd final match, at home, Corinthians won by 2-0, with the first goal by Edilson at '70 and the second goal by Marcelinho Carioca at '80. For the 2nd time, Corinthians were crowned Brazilian champions. Gamarra and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, while Edílson won the Golden Ball and Marcelinho Carioca was the team's topscorer with 19 goals in 28 matches. Their coach Luxemburgo left Corinthians to command the Brazil NT, appointing his auxiliary Oswaldo de Oliveira as the new coach.
Corinthians 1999 season was a hell of a rollercoaster. Qualified to the big dream, the Copa Libertadores, the team was the same as 1998, and had the arrival of Dida and Luizão.
In May 1999, Corinthians were knocked-off of the Copa Libertadores quarter-finals by their archrival Palmeiras, 2-4 on the penalties, after two evenly derbies (0-2, 2-0).
Weeks later, in June 1999, Corinthians and Palmeiras, again, disputed the final of the State League. Corinthians won the 1st derby 3-0. At minute 75 of the 2nd leg, with 2-2 in the score and Corinthians' title secured, Corinthians' winger Edílson performed the biggest provocation in the history of Brazilian football, by doing kick-ups with the ball, provoking this huge, epic and funny struggle. The match ended, and Corinthians were crowned State champions.
At the end of the season, Corinthians dominated the 1999 Brazilian League. In the K.O stage, they beat Guarani in the quarter-finals, and then their city rival São Paulo in the semis (3-2, 2-1), after Dida epically saved two penalties from São Paulo idol Raí (former PSG): the first on his left side at '52, and the second on his right side at '92. Corinthians then won the 2nd leg 2-1 and qualified to the finals.
They would face Atlético Mineiro, and lost the 1st leg (away) 2-3. At home in the 2nd leg, Corinthians beat them 2-0 with 2 goals from Luizão, the first at '28 from a header, and the second at '59 from inside the box. The 3rd leg was an electrifying 0-0 tie, and Corinthians were declared back-to-back Brazilian League champions.
Dida, Rincón and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, Marcelinho Carioca won the Golden Ball, and Luizão was the team's topscorer with 21 goals in 25 matches.
The 2000 FIFA Club World Cup title
In 2000, took place in Brazil the first edition of the Club World Cup, and Corinthians qualified as Brazilian champions.
Group A Points Goal difference
Corinthians 7 +4
Real Madrid (Spain) 7 +3
Al-Nassr (Saudi Arabia) 3 -3
Raja Casablanca (Morocco) 0 -4
Group B Points Goal difference
Vasco 9 +5
Necaxa (Mexico) 4 +1
Manchester United (England) 4 0
South Melbourne (Australia) 0 -6
Before Real Madrid's match against Corinthians, the French centre-back Karembeu said he didn't know who Edilson (Corinthians number 10) was. In the match, Edilson humiliated him with this dismantling and shameful nutmeg, before scoring this painting of a goal. The match ended 2-2, with Edílson also scoring the other Corinthians goal.
This beautiful image is perfect to describe Karembeu's humiliating moment.
Corinthians would proceed to play against Vasco in the big final. 70.000 Corinthianos invaded Rio de Janeiro just like in 1976, expecting a great match against Vasco's dream team that had Romário, Edmundo and Juninho Pernambucano. After a 0-0 tie, it went to the penalties. Dida saved Gilberto's shot, and Marcelino Carioca only needed to score to end it, but he missed it. However, Edmundo lost Vasco's last penalty, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions.
However, later that year, Corinthians met their archrivals Palmeiras once again in the Copa Libertadores, now in the semi-finals. After two crazy evenly derbies (4-3, 2-3), it went to the penalties, just like in 1999. And Marcelinho lost his one, getting Corinthians out of the tournament, and beginning a huge frustration and trauma of the Corinthianos for not having a continental title, while all their state rivals (Palmeiras, São Paulo and Santos) had.
2001-2010: Carlitos Tévez, the 2007 relegation, Ronaldo Nazário's last dance, and the Copa Libertadores trauma
The 2000s was a crazy decade for Corinthians.
They won 3 State League titles (2001, 2003, 2009), 1 Brazilian League (2005), 2 Copa do Brasil (2002, 2009) and 1 Rio-São Paulo (2002). But they were also relegated to the Brazilian League Serie B in 2007.
Highlights to their Galáticos 2005 team, led by Argentine stars Tévez and Mascherano, as well as Carlos Alberto (former Porto) and Nilmar (eventual Villareal), who together won the 2005 Brazilian League.
After their relegation to Serie B in 2007, the club rebuilt greatly under the president Andrés Sanchez.
He brought the legend Ronaldo Nazário in 2009, who led Corinthians to the 2009 State League title against Neymar's Santos and to the 2009 Copa do Brasil title against Internacional. Ronaldo scored 35 goals in 69 matches, with great highlights, notably this last-minute goal on his 1st match in a derby against Palmeiras and also this goal against Santos in the 2009 State League final. He was joined by left-back Roberto Carlos in 2010, before retiring in 2011.
But the Copa Libertadores trauma was still alive. The 30 million Corinthianos couldn't live with the jokes and suffering for not having a continental title.
Year Stage Knocked-out by
1977 Copa Libertadores Group Stage Internacional
1991 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Boca Juniors (Argentina)
1996 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Grêmio
1999 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Palmeiras
2000 Copa Libertadores Semi-finals Palmeiras
2003 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2006 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2010 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Flamengo
2011 Copa Libertadores Preliminary Round Tolima (Colombia)
But after the 2011 elimination, a new era began.
Corinthians 2011-2012: National, Continental and World champions, the dream came true
The coach Tite almost lost his job after the ridiculous defeat to Tolima. But he stayed and focused on the 2011 Brazilian League.
Corinthians dominated the league, leading it for 27 rounds (out of 38). On the last round, they tied 0-0 against Palmeiras and secured their 5th Brazilian League title. However, sadly on this same day, the old idol Sócrates passed away, at the age of 57.
Corinthians had thus qualified to the 2012 Copa Libertadores, which they would brilliantly win undefeated (8W-6D), as well as their 2nd FIFA Club World Cup title.
Tournament Stage Match Goals
2012 Libertadores GS 1-1 Táchira (VEN) Ralf
2012 Libertadores GS 2-0 Nacional (PAR) Danilo, Jorge Henrique
2012 Libertadores GS 0-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) -
2012 Libertadores GS 1-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) Danilo
2012 Libertadores GS 3-1 Nacional (PAR) Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Elton
2012 Libertadores GS 6-0 Táchira (VEN) Danilo, Paulinho, Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Liédson, Douglas
2012 Libertadores Ro16 0-0 Emelec (ECU) -
2012 Libertadores Ro16 3-0 Emelec (ECU) Fábio Santos, Paulinho, Alex
2012 Libertadores QF 0-0 Vasco -
2012 Libertadores QF 1-0 Vasco Paulinho
2012 Libertadores SF 1-0 Santos Sheik
2012 Libertadores SF 1-1 Santos Danilo
2012 Libertadores Final 1-1 Boca Juniors (ARG) Romarinho
2012 Libertadores Final 2-0 Boca Juniors (ARG) Sheik (2x)
2012 Club World Cup SF 1-0 Al-Ahly (EGY) Guerrero
2012 Club World Cup Final 1-0 Chelsea (ENG) Guerrero
Corinthians topped their group stage, placing 2nd overall in the cup. In the round of 16 they met Emelec (Ecuador), and held a 0-0 tie away in the 1st leg, before beating them 3-0 at home in the 2nd leg without much problems, except this dangerous chance and this ball in the post in Ecuador.
In the quarter-finals, the adversary was the Brazilian team, Vasco. The 1st leg was in Rio de Janeiro, a 0-0 tie, with this only big chance in Corinthians' favor. In the 2nd leg, Corinthians were pressing Vasco a lot, until the minute 62, when Vasco forward Diego Souza threw this incredible opportunity away. Had he scored, Corinthians would need 2 goals in 30 minutes. Corinthians kept pressing, until Paulinho scored the winning goal at '87.
In the semi-finals, the current Copa Libertadores champions, Santos, with Neymar, Ganso, Elano & co., would be a tough opponent. But, playing away, Corinthians' Sheik opened the score at '27 with this nice goal. Cássio made this good defense at '57, and this other one at '80. In the 2nd leg, Neymar opened the score for Santos at '35, but Danilo scored for Corinthians at '47, as the match ended 1-1, with Corinthians qualified to their 1st Copa Libertadores final.
In the big final against Riquelme's Boca Juniors (Argentina), who were chasing their 7th title, Corinthians would play the first match in Argentina. Boca opened the score at '72, but Romarinho equalized at '84, after Paulinho took the ball from Riquelme. Boca still had time to hit the post at '90. In the 2nd leg in São Paulo, Sheik opened the score at '53 and scored the 2nd at '71, after a juvenile mistake by Boca. At '92 the match was over, and Corinthians were crowned Copa Libertadores champions for the first time, and undefeated.
2012 Club World Cup - Corinthians 1-0 Chelsea
After beating Al-Ahly (Egypt) 1-0 in the semis, with this goal from Paolo Guerrero, Corinthians was ready to face Chelsea, the European champions, in the final. 30.000 Corinthianos invaded Japan for this unique moment.
Cássio (GK) saved Corinthians at least 4 times, notably with this one. But at '68, after a confusion inside the box, Paolo Guerrero scored the only goal of the match. At '84, Fernando Torres lost this 1on1 opportunity, brilliantly saved by Cássio. At '94, the match ended, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions for the 2nd time in their history.
Corinthians - 1 Chelsea - 0
12. Cássio 1. Cech
2. Alessandro 2. Ivanovic (Azpilicueta)
3. Chicão 4. David Luiz
13. Paulo André 24. Cahill
6. Fábio Santos 3. A. Cole
5. Ralf 8. Lampard
8. Paulinho 7. Ramires
11. Sheik (Wallace) 13. Moses (Oscar)
23. J. Henrique 17. Hazard (Marin)
20. Danilo 10. Juan Mata
9. Paolo Guerrero (Martinez) 9. Torres
Tite Rafa Benítez
2013-today
After these brilliant days, Corinthians remained on the top tier of Brazilian and South American football. They completed an International Treble in 2013 after winning the 2013 Recopa Sudamericana, won two more notable Brasileirão titles (2015, 2017), and also four more state leagues (2013, 2017, 2018, 2019). Their new arena was also concluded, in 2014.
Aqui é Corinthians!!! (This is Corinthians!!!)
To this day, Corinthians has a fanbase of 30 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 33.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.01 12:03 remote-enthusiast I've collected 63 remote jobs

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
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Cosse infiltrada en recorrida de Laura Raffo. 20 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Se acuerdan de que había metido una limol en un océano? Bueno ahora nada que ver, les muestro un render que hice ( ͡ʘ ͜ʖ ͡ʘ) ando haciendo fondos en 3d personalizados para smartphones! Si quieren uno pásense por mi instagram (@anthonyrosa3d) 9 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Arco galáctico en el punto más alto del Uruguay / Cerro Catedral, Maldonado / Huawei P40 Pro / @astropolo_ 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
¿Limitar una moto a 200cc? 7 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Racismo en Uruguay. 111 comentarios (14 nuevos)
Recibí insultos de una militante política 67 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Tabletas digitalizadoras 13 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Viejas confesiones de un represor vuelven a poner el foco en omisiones de tribunales de honor y gobierno del FA 25 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Fuera de Concurso 23 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Denuncia penal de ASSE a la gestión de Álvaro Villar en el Hospital Maciel 5 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Ya que estamos con las fotos, me presento 25 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Me recomiendan juegos singleplayer? 54 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Renner good job con los stickers. 4 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Visto en Twitter 9 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Veo que en Uruguay se construye cada vez más con steel framing. No sé porque, pero como que no me convence. Alguno vive o a podido estar en casas construidas así? que tal son con respecto a la construcción clásica? la sensación de estar en una casa así como es? es cómoda?. 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
La IM presupuestó $5.812.030 por "La Letra Chica" 30 comentarios (1 nuevo)
¿QUÉ ONDA CON LACALLE POU? 11 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Me le pare de mano al presidente 21 comentarios (5 nuevos)
El tio sam aprendió que... Uuruguay es el mejor paiis 32 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Se armó. 4 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Escracharon a Roberto Musso en la cuenta @varonesdelrock 65 comentarios (16 nuevos)
Uruguay es una nación masculina, bien ahí los Chad uruguayos 5 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Bien ahi Uruguay haciéndose conocer 9 comentarios (1 nuevo)
12 ways to divide South America. Inspired by Yakov Tsetsov's "Atlas of prejudice". Made by Luis "Locoluis" González 42 comentarios (13 nuevos)
Pokémon go 12 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Lo importante es estar regularizado para no perder minions 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
El racismo uruguayo: silencioso y latente 18 comentarios (10 nuevos)
De Varonescarnaval y Varonesrock. Viene varonespolítica. 33 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Existe la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres en Uruguay? hay algún lugar que detalle muy bien los datos? 24 comentarios (17 nuevos)
Chivito 30 comentarios (6 nuevos)
7 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Canciones uruguayas para Animal Crossing? 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Uruguay pegandola con los cielos 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
MSP aprobó nueva técnica de testeo: cómo funciona y para qué se va a usar 25 comentarios (24 nuevos)
Sábado de ñoquis. 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
El ministerio de defensa desmiente las versiones de Madres y Familiares de que el ejército entregó información incompleta con respecto al tribunal de honor ed Gilberto Vázquez y los crímenes que surgen. 10 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Pase callee 10 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Cosse: “Raffo necesita varias vidas para lograr que yo hable mal de un compañero del FA” 16 comentarios (16 nuevos)
La omisión de denunciar dichos de Gilberto Vázquez es delito prescrito 15 comentarios (15 nuevos)
Pedido de acceso de periodista a Defensa sobre Tribunales de Honor se respondió sin las actas 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Sin palabras 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
Hitler compró terreno en Rocha 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Cae a la mitad cantidad de adscriptos a los ministerios: ¿quiénes son y cuánto ganan? 4 comentarios (4 nuevos)
El flaco silverstein. El embajador yankee en Uruguay con el mejor español de la historia de los embajadores yankees del Uruguay. Año 2002 29 comentarios (29 nuevos)
Pegotines del FA 21 comentarios (21 nuevos)
Alguno tiene monstera? 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
Se puede casarse y tener familia en Uruguay? 24 comentarios (24 nuevos)
Qué experiencias han tenido haciéndose piercings en Montevideo? 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Corte Electoral aprobó el reclamo del Partido Colorado contra Fernando Amado 18 comentarios (18 nuevos)
“Estas actas nos revelan la mentira de los mandos militares que dicen que buscan la verdad” 22 comentarios (22 nuevos)
Tengo y consumo Adderall para programar. AMA 37 comentarios (37 nuevos)
Antel borró División encargada de Fibra Óptica al Hogar, Cable Submarino, Data Center y Antel Arena 17 comentarios (17 nuevos)
"Ayyyy es muy difícil para Tabaré leer las cosas que firma, eran expedientes muy grandes no tiene tiempo el Presidente es todo culpa de los miliaresssss" 14 comentarios (14 nuevos)
Ahorro en envases retornables 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
wow 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
"FACHO LIBERAL" 72 comentarios (72 nuevos)
¿Como comprar el Asus ROG Zephyrus Duo 15? 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Un túnel para los desechos de Buenos Aires atravesará el Río de la Plata: la obra que lleva 11 años, pero de la que poco se sabe 16 comentarios (16 nuevos)
Algún sitio donde ver gratis futbol? 11 comentarios (11 nuevos)
Algo para hacer en Montevideo hoy? 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Prex en restaurantes 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Una joyita este momento 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
#varonesdelrock seguro 28 comentarios (28 nuevos)
Liberalismo 9 comentarios (9 nuevos)
Esto pasa cuando ponés al becario hincha de Peñarol a redactar la nota del partido de Nacional 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Carnicería carnelandia de calle Mercedes 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
Truco Ver Futbol Uruguayo Fanatiz 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Tarjeta U25 Itau 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Increíble 14 comentarios (14 nuevos)
Programón 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
El contexto avatar uruguayo 28 comentarios (28 nuevos)
Discúlpenme Pero Siento Orgullo de Uruguay 🇺🇾🇺🇾🇺🇾 0 comentarios
No estamos tan mal como parece. 4 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Its time. 27 comentarios (27 nuevos)
Abierto nuevamente, Multisex 10 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Candidato de Cabildo en Rocha de "brazos abiertos" con "hippies en serio": "No queremos el pichaje" 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Humanity Restored 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Mi sábado por la noche, compartiendo otro mix: Synthwave Mix 2 - Action/Dark Synthwave 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Juegos de mesa. 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Quiero jugar volley pero no se donde. 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
FA durante el golpe militar 8 comentarios (8 nuevos)
Programa para cortar wifi? 20 comentarios (20 nuevos)
O que é Travel Brand?/What is travel brand? 0 comentarios
Será la 4ta? 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Un post de uruguay me hizo refleccionar sobre algo 0 comentarios
Carpincho en Age of Empires 3 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
Se puede ir a usar la pista de ciclismo velódromo? 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Gaming 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
¿Ventajas de hablar varios idiomas? 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
2020-08-29 07:00 - 2020-08-30 07:00
submitted by Samus_ to ResumenDeUruguay [link] [comments]


2020.08.29 12:16 Samus_ Resumen de r/Uruguay - 2020-08-29

Método Wim Hof: se animan a probarlo? 19 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Más de 200 empresas argentinas de tecnología e importación buscan radicarse en Uruguay (en los estudios jurídicos no paran de sonar los teléfonos) 15 comentarios (1 nuevo)
¿Quién ha logrado dejar las benzodiacepinas exitosamente? específicamente Clonazepam 21 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Vengo trabajando hace tiempo en un videojuego narrativo inspirado en arquitecturas Rioplatenses e Italianas. Quería compartir un screenshot de una de mis escenas 3D, en la cual reconstruí una casa chorizo. 95 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Manini is that u ? 20 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Tengo un amigo que invento esto. Hay algún emprendedor con un pequeño capital para invertir? 57 comentarios (2 nuevos)
¿Con que país les gusta menos jugar videojuegos? 44 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Llego tarde para la nostalgia, pero se acuerdan de esto? Alguien sigue teniendo? 29 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Ke rica cola. 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Iconoclastas I 24 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Valor de patentes y seguros de auto en Uruguay 5 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Qué le hace falta al sub? Tenes alguna idea para mejorarlo? Este sub para la cantidad de gente que tiene es más activo que otros subs de países latinos, pero podría estar mejor. Tenes alguna idea para mejorarlo?. 37 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Esto fue hoy en ruta 5 29 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Aquella noche Colonial 2 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Rayo acaba de destruir estatua de la libertad de Plaza Rivera. Mercedes. 20 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Busco spot de fin del horario de protección al menor de los 90 9 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Arrancó #varonesdelrock, ya tengo el pop y la coca fría, todo listo para ver el mundo arder. Cuándo se vendrá el #varonesdeuruguay?. 43 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Cepal dijo que "las cifras son lo que son", aunque destacó las fortalezas de Uruguay 47 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Arranco la temporada de videos de mulitas arrastrando bichos 30 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Porque recalcan que es un femicidio? 66 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Me lo recomendó youtube... Que les parece? 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Jueves emprendedor. 14 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Me parece que no... Bienvenidos al sistema educativo uruguayo, en el cual la veracidad de las fuentes no se consulta en absoluto antes de publicar una prueba semestral, muchas gracias educación social y cívica :)) 34 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Campeonato Street Fighter 2 made in Uruguay 54 comentarios (15 nuevos)
@JuanchiHounie: Una partida (única) de 1500 pesos a aquellos afiliados al sindicato que participen del paro. 31 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Pasaje Policía Vieja y Bartolomé Mitre - 1920 12 comentarios (1 nuevo)
El Partido Colorado denunciá a Amado por usar el color rojo y la palabra "batllista" 61 comentarios (12 nuevos)
Cumple en Uruguay be like... 33 comentarios (2 nuevos)
¿Es posible? 18 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Lacalle dijo que el FA está “como bola sin manija” y no logra “entrarle” a la coalición 23 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Gente deseando que alguien haya tenido sexo con menores para ir preso. 31 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Sindicato Médico del Uruguay dejará de llenar la historia clínica electrónica de los pacientes como medida de protesta. 48 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Que miércoles está pasando? 24 comentarios (2 nuevos)
PROBLEMA TARJETA PREX 8 comentarios (2 nuevos)
“Un presupuesto que va a hacer hincapié en las adicciones, esos miles de uruguayos por lo general jóvenes que son adictos y no tienen un tratamiento por parte del estado a su alcance.” -Lacalle 26/8/2020. "El dealer de Luis" -Argimón 19/6/2020. En fin la hipotenusa. 30 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Lacalle cumple medio año en Uruguay con los mejores datos de Covid de América 11 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Hay subreddit de Fotografía en Uruguay? 4 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Transferencia no recibida de MercadoPago a Prex. A quien debo reclamar y donde? 5 comentarios (2 nuevos)
El último día de La Pasiva de 18 y Ejido 11 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Gilberto Vázquez admitió en 2006 que el Ejército ejecutó, torturó y realizó el “segundo vuelo” 16 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Uruguay recuperó solo la cuarta parte de los US$ 16 millones que gastó para solventar el juicio con la minera Aratirí 17 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Aduanas 7 comentarios (2 nuevos)
¿Cómo vemos a los inmigrantes? [El País] 35 comentarios (15 nuevos)
Chapó el moreno 6 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Cosse infiltrada en recorrida de Laura Raffo. 19 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Se acuerdan de que había metido una limol en un océano? Bueno ahora nada que ver, les muestro un render que hice ( ͡ʘ ͜ʖ ͡ʘ) ando haciendo fondos en 3d personalizados para smartphones! Si quieren uno pásense por mi instagram (@anthonyrosa3d) 8 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Viajar con mascotas en taxi 16 comentarios (11 nuevos)
Tasa de rechazo a las visas de turistas de diferentes países a EE.UU. 9 comentarios (1 nuevo)
Arco galáctico en el punto más alto del Uruguay / Cerro Catedral, Maldonado / Huawei P40 Pro / @astropolo_ 11 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Disculparán mi ignorancia, pero desconocía que los Tatús son carnívoros 20 comentarios (15 nuevos)
Necesito un video de Lacalle caminando hacia la cámara. 6 comentarios (2 nuevos)
¿Limitar una moto a 200cc? 5 comentarios (4 nuevos)
Viernes de legislación. 18 comentarios (18 nuevos)
Racismo en Uruguay. 97 comentarios (97 nuevos)
Recibí insultos de una militante política 65 comentarios (65 nuevos)
[CONFIRMADO] Blackpink es de uruguay 8 comentarios (8 nuevos)
Tabletas digitalizadoras 12 comentarios (12 nuevos)
Se siguen haciendo juntadas en Longboard? 0 comentarios
El lado B de Yendo a la casa de Damián. 0 comentarios
UPM’s pulp mill project in Uruguay: what a difference a year makes! 0 comentarios
Viejas confesiones de un represor vuelven a poner el foco en omisiones de tribunales de honor y gobierno del FA 18 comentarios (18 nuevos)
Declaración de Gilberto Vázquez ante el Tribunal de Honor para Oficiales Superiores 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
¿Es Uruguay tan bueno como lo pintan? 0 comentarios
Fuera de Concurso 19 comentarios (19 nuevos)
Gilberto Vázquez y los DDHH: lo viejo, lo nuevo y lo de siempre 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Denuncia penal de ASSE a la gestión de Álvaro Villar en el Hospital Maciel 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Uruguay en el nuevo juego de Captain Tsubasa! 6 comentarios (6 nuevos)
Ya que estamos con las fotos, me presento 0 comentarios
Thread de @gusgomezgermano : Nueva sentencia de la Suprema Corte de Justicia confirma constitucionalidad de la Ley de Medios de #Uruguay: el gobierno deberá garantizar que determinados partidos de la selección uruguaya se transmitan en TV abierta 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Ya que estamos con las fotos, me presento 21 comentarios (21 nuevos)
Me recomiendan juegos singleplayer? 49 comentarios (49 nuevos)
Trabajo TI remoto desde Uruguay 12 comentarios (12 nuevos)
ADUANAS - Estadísticas de encomiendas a julio de 2020 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Renner good job con los stickers. 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Madres y Familiares hicieron sus descargos en conferencia de prensa: “Desecharon esa información y mintieron” 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
¿Malas experiencias con yerba canarias? (Ej. Dolor estomacal) 15 comentarios (15 nuevos)
Democracia con Voto obligatorio 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Visto en Twitter 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Veo que en Uruguay se construye cada vez más con steel framing. No sé porque, pero como que no me convence. Alguno vive o a podido estar en casas construidas así? que tal son con respecto a la construcción clásica? la sensación de estar en una casa así como es? es cómoda?. 11 comentarios (11 nuevos)
Streamers Uruguay 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
La IM presupuestó $5.812.030 por "La Letra Chica" 29 comentarios (29 nuevos)
Change in smoking prevalence among adultos (DataIsBeautiful) 10 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Madres y Familiares sobre las actas: "Lo más grave es el silencio de los mandos militares" 24 comentarios (24 nuevos)
L'Uruguay es el mejor país y es masculino según Francia 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
Disputa con inmobiliaria, AITA? 26 comentarios (26 nuevos)
¿QUÉ ONDA CON LACALLE POU? 10 comentarios (10 nuevos)
Tarjeta STM 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
El director general del Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Fabián Martínez presentó ante la Fiscalía de Corte, la documentación relativa al Tribunal de Honor del coronel en situación de reforma Gilberto Vázquez, realizado en el año 2006. 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Me le pare de mano al presidente 16 comentarios (16 nuevos)
El tio sam aprendió que... Uuruguay es el mejor paiis 25 comentarios (25 nuevos)
¿Qué preferís que te digan? 5 comentarios (5 nuevos)
Se armó. 2 comentarios (2 nuevos)
Escracharon a Roberto Musso en la cuenta @varonesdelrock 49 comentarios (49 nuevos)
Uruguay es una nación masculina, bien ahí los Chad uruguayos 3 comentarios (3 nuevos)
Bien ahi Uruguay haciéndose conocer 8 comentarios (8 nuevos)
curb your enthusiasm musiquita 0 comentarios
12 ways to divide South America. Inspired by Yakov Tsetsov's "Atlas of prejudice". Made by Luis "Locoluis" González 29 comentarios (29 nuevos)
Pokémon go 9 comentarios (9 nuevos)
Lo importante es estar regularizado para no perder minions 11 comentarios (11 nuevos)
El racismo uruguayo: silencioso y latente 8 comentarios (8 nuevos)
De Varonescarnaval y Varonesrock. Viene varonespolítica. 30 comentarios (30 nuevos)
Existe la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres en Uruguay? hay algún lugar que detalle muy bien los datos? 7 comentarios (7 nuevos)
Chivito 24 comentarios (24 nuevos)
4 comentarios (4 nuevos)
VaronesCarnaval y VaronesRock 0 comentarios
Canciones uruguayas para Animal Crossing? 0 comentarios
Uruguay pegandola con los cielos 0 comentarios
Discúlpenme, pero esto me llena de orgullo. Vamo Arriba Uruguay 🇺🇾🇺🇾🇺🇾 0 comentarios
Recorrida por los laboratorios del Clemente Estable 0 comentarios
MSP aprobó nueva técnica de testeo: cómo funciona y para qué se va a usar 1 comentario (1 nuevo)
2020-08-28 07:00 - 2020-08-29 07:00
submitted by Samus_ to ResumenDeUruguay [link] [comments]


2020.08.18 11:05 Cicero1982 Your Pre Market Brief for 08/18/2020

Your Pre Market Brief for 08/18/2020

Pre Market Brief for Tuesday August 18th 2020

You can subscribe to the daily 4:00 AM Pre Market Brief on The Twitter Link Here . Alerts in the tweets will direct you to the daily 4:00 AM Pre Market Brief in this sub.
Morning Research and Trading Prep Tool Kit
The Ultimate Quick Resource For the Amateur Trader.
Published 4:00 AM EST / Updated as of 5:00 AM EST
-----------------------------------------------
Stock Futures:
Monday 07/17/2020 News and Markets Recap:
Tuesday August 18th 2020 Economic Calendar (All times are Eastern)
News Heading into Tuesday August 18th 2020
NOTE: PLEASE DO NOT YOLO THE VARIOUS TICKERS WITHOUT DOING RESEARCH. THE TIME STAMPS ON THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES MAY BE LATER THAN OTHERS ON THE WEB. THE CREATOR OF THIS THREAD COMPILED THE FOLLOWING IN A QUICK MANNER AND DOES NOT ATTEST TO THE VERACITY OF THE INFORMATION BELOW. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR VETTING YOUR OWN SOURCES AND DOING YOUR OWN DD.
Note: Seeking A url's and Reddit do not get along.
Upcoming Earnings:
COVID-19 Stats and News:
Macro Considerations:
Most Recent SEC Filings
Other
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Morning Research and Trading Prep Tool Kit
Other Useful Resources:
The Ultimate Quick Resource For the Amateur Trader.
Subscribe to This Brief and the daily 4:00 AM Pre Market Brief on The Twitter Link Here . Alerts in the tweets will direct you to the daily brief in this sub
It is up to you to judge the accuracy and veracity of these headlines before trading.
submitted by Cicero1982 to u/Cicero1982 [link] [comments]


2020.08.18 08:09 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 6/12: Atlético Mineiro

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 6/12: Atlético Mineiro (State: Minas Gerais), founded in 1908

State rivals: Cruzeiro, América Mineiro

Stadium: Mineirão (New) / (Old), Independência (2012-19)

Mascot: Rooster

Major achievements: 1 Copa Libertadores (2013), 1 Brazilian League (1971), 1 Copa do Brasil (2014), 2 Copa Conmebol (1992, 1997), 1 Recopa Sudamericana (2014)

State League titles: 44 (Against Cruzeiro's 38, América Mineiro's 16)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO ATLÉTICO MINEIRO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
The first decades
Atlético Mineiro was founded in 1908, in the city of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais. Due to infrastructural limitations in Brazil, only State Leagues were played at that time, so Atlético Mineiro would mostly play it against their rivals Cruzeiro and América Mineiro - until the National League was created in 1959. Highlights to their 5-consecutive State League titles between 1952 and 1956, and to their successful European excursion in 1950, beating 1860 München (4-3), Hamburg (4-0) in what was their first defeat at home to a foreign team, Schalke 04 (3-1) in a pitch of dirt, Saarbrücken (2-0) and Anderlecht (2-1).
1971: Atlético Mineiro's first and only Brazilian League title
Trophyless since 1963, and having to watch their rival Cruzeiro win several titles in the 1960s, Atlético Mineiro brought an upcoming coaching talent: Telê Santana, the mastermind behind Brazil 1982 and São Paulo 1990-94, who would be elected the 35th greatest coach of all time by France Football in 2019.
First they won the 1970 State League and placed 3rd in the National League. The next year, with basically the same team led by the forward Dario Maravilha, they played 27 matches in the National League, with 12W-10D-5D to be crowned champions. Being one of the best leagues in the world at the time, the Campeonato Brasileiro had all the 1970 World Cup champions displaying their talent around, but it was Atlético Mineiro who took the trophy, even if they didn't have any starter in the Brazil NT like their rivals did.
In the final triangular, they had to play São Paulo and Botafogo. First they beat São Paulo 1-0, with this goal from a free-kick. Then, only needing a tie, they beat Botafogo 1-0 at the Maracanã, with this header from Dario Maravilha.
The greatest team that could have been - 1977-1983
In an era dominated by Zico's Flamengo and Falcao's Internacional, and also by continental champions Grêmio and Cruzeiro, Atlético Mineiro only lacked a major title to validate their great team and exhibitions. In this period, they dominated their State League with 6-consecutive titles (1978-1983) and finished 2nd twice in the National League: notably undefeated in 1977 (17W-4D), and to Zico's Flamengo in 1980 - in a controversial big final (2-3), where the referee sent off Atlético Mineiro's star player Reinaldo at minute 65 (2-2), for delaying the restart of the match, when he had already scored twice in the game. After Flamengo scored their 3rd goal at '82, the referee sent off two more Atlético Mineiro's players, who ended the game with 8 on the pitch.
The next year, in the 1981 Copa Libertadores, these two teams met once again in the group stage, and had to play a tie-break match for one of the semi-final spots. At minute 33 (0-0), the referee sent off Atlético Mineiro's Reinaldo, at 36 Atlético Mineiro's Éder, and during the mess that rose up, Chicão, Palinha and the coach, all from Atlético Mineiro. And then sent off their goalkeeper João Leite, who "fell injured" after the restart, and Flamengo qualified with a W.O.
To this day, the Atlético Mineiro-Flamengo rivalry is considered the biggest interstate rivalry in Brazil.
In the record 6 consecutive State Leagues Atlético Mineiro won in this period, they played an overall 198 matches, with 132 wins, 37 draws and only 29 defeats (73%).
In this period, Atlético Mineiro provided the following players to the National League Best XI: Toninho Cerezo (1977, 1980), Reinaldo (1977, 1983), João Leite (1979), Osmar (1979), Luizinho (1980), Nelinho (1983), Éder (1983). Highlights to Toninho Cerezo, who won the Golden Ball in 1977 and 1980, and to Reinaldo, topscorer in 1977 with 28 goals.
Below, a few stats from some of the notable 1970/1980s Atlético Mineiro players:
Player Season Apps Goals Brazil NT caps World Cups
Dario Maravilha 1968-72 190 172 11 1970
Toninho Cerezo 1972-83 400 53 73 1978, 1982
Reinaldo 1973-85 475 255 29 1978
Paulo Isidoro 1975-79 129 30 36 1982
Luizinho 1978-89 537 21 36 1982
Éder 1980-85 328 118 51 1982
Nelinho 1982-87 274 52 21 1978
1990s: 2 Copa Conmebol titles, and a strong national presence
In the 1990s, Atlético Mineiro won twice the Copa Conmebol (Southamerican UEFA Cup counterpart), in 1992 and 1997, also reaching the final in 1995. In 1992, they beat Fluminense, Junior Barrranquilla (COL), El Nacional (ECU) and Olimpia (PAR), without much complications. In 1997, they beat Portuguesa, América de Cali (COL), Universitario (PER) and Lanús (ARG), in a relatively easy fashion. In the 1995 Copa Conmebol, though, Atlético Mineiro blew a 4-0 advantage in the 2nd leg, losing by the same result in Argentina against Rosario Central, and lost the title in the penalties (3-4).
In this decade, Atlético Mineiro also reached the top4 in the Brazilian League 4 times, notably a 2nd place in 1999. In a country with 12 big clubs and big competitivity and rotation in the league, being in the top4 is a pretty good result.
Actually, between 1970 and 2001, Atlético Mineiro reached the top4 more than any other Brazilian team - winning it only once though, in 1971, as you can see in the table below:
Team League Top4 Titles (only 1970-2001)
Atlético Mineiro 14 1
Internacional 11 3
Corinthians 10 3
São Paulo 10 3
Palmeiras 8 4
Vasco 8 4
Cruzeiro 8 0
Grêmio 7 2
Fluminense 7 2
Flamengo 6 5
Botafogo 6 1
Guarani 5 1
Santos 4 0
So, in this specific period (1970-2001), Atlético Mineiro made it into the top4 in 14 out of 32 seasons. Overall (1959-2019), they still perform well, though still lacking titles:
Team League Top4 Titles (1959-2019)
Palmeiras 22 10
Grêmio 21 2
Santos 20 8
Corinthians 19 7
São Paulo 19 6
Internacional 19 3
Cruzeiro 18 4
Atlético Mineiro 17 1
Fluminense 15 4
Flamengo 12 7
Vasco 12 4
Botafogo 11 2
Bahia 5 2
Guarani 5 1
Athletico 4 1
Coritiba 3 1
Sport 2 1
2012-14: the Fairy Tales of the Copa Libertadores and Copa do Brasil titles
After a forgettable 2000s decade - with only 2 state league titles and 1 relegation to Serie B -, everything turned around in the 2010s, with the unforgettable and dramatic title campaigns in the 2013 Copa Libertadores and 2014 Copa do Brasil.
Led by international stars Ronaldinho and , and by their local talents (notably Bernard), Atlético Mineiro qualified to the 2013 Copa Libertadores after finishing 2nd in the 2012 Brazilian League.
In the first match in the group stage, against São Paulo, at minute 13, Ronaldinho played this incredible trick (1mn18s video) on legendary goalkeeper Rogério Ceni. They would win the match 2-1, with Ronaldinho providing both assists. They would then beat Arsenal (Argentina) 5-2, away, with a hat-trick from Bernard, and The Strongest (Bolivia) 2-1, at home.
In their third match, they beat the Bolivians once again, now in Bolivia, 2-1. They met then the Argentines of Arsenal at home, and won by the same 5-2 score, with this crazy master-class goal by Ronaldinho. They lost the last group stage match 0-2 to São Paulo, but still qualified to the K.O stage with the best campaign of the tournament.
In the ro16, they would face São Paulo once again. In the 1st leg in São Paulo, they won the match 2-1, with Ronaldinho scoring the tie from a header and Diego Tardelli scoring the winning-goal at '59.
In the 2nd leg in Belo Horizonte, Atlético Mineiro demolished São Paulo, winning it 4-1. opened the score at '18, and then scored again at '63. Diego Tardelli scored the 3-0 at '64, and completed his hat-trick at '69, with a classic no-look assist by Ronaldinho. At the end of the match, Ronaldinho almost scored this brilliant goal, after fooling the São Paulo defense.
In the quarter-finals against Tijuana (Mexico), away, Atlético Mineiro were losing 0-2, until they found a goal at '66, and another one at '92, leaving with a great 2-2 tie. At home, in the 2nd leg, the Mexicans opened the scored, but Atlético Mineiro scored the tie at the end of the first half. At the end of the 2nd half, at minute 91, Tijuana was awarded a penalty, which Victor miraculously saved with his feet, therefore epically qualifying his team to the semi-finals.
Epicness happened again, now in the semi-finals, against Newell's Old Boys from Argentina, led by Heinze, Maxi Rodriguez and Scocco. Atlético Mineiro lost the 1st leg in Argentina, 0-2. In the 2nd leg, at minute 3, Ronaldinho provided a beautiful assist to Bernard, who opened the score. Needing one more goal, at minute 96, Guilherme scored an unbelievable goal from the outside of the box, and the match would be decided in the penalties. Maxi Rodriguez had his penalty saved by goalkeeper Victor, and Atlético Mineiro qualified to their first Copa Libertadores final.
Atlético Mineiro would face Olimpia, from Paraguay, in the big final. They lost the 1st leg 0-2 in Paraguay, after missing a ton of goal opportunities. The Paraguayans parked the bus in the Mineirão stadium, and the 1st half ended 0-0. At the beginning of the 2nd half, Jô opened the score for Atlético Mineiro. The 2nd half was a crazy shooting show from Atlético Mineiro, who couldn't score, and were incredibly luck as Olimpia's player slipped with an empty goal. At '87, the unbelievable happened again, when CB Leonardo scored their 2nd goal, taking it to the extratime and then to the penalties, when Victor saved the first, and got helped by the post in Olimpia's last penalty, Atlético Mineiro being thus crowned continental champions for the first time, in a crazy fashion.
2014 Copa do Brasil: another crazy ride
After the deception at the 2013 Club World Cup, which had a huge "Bayern vs. Ronaldinho" hype, and their early falling in the 2014 Copa Libertadores, Atlético Mineiro recovered themselves with the 2014 Recopa Sudamericana title against Lanús (Argentina), in a crazy final (0-1 and 4-3, with extratime).
After Ronaldinho's departure to Mexico in July, the team got totally focused in the Copa do Brasil, after Cruzeiro took too big of a lead in the National League.
In the ro16 they met Palmeiras, and knocked them off with no problems (1-0 and 2-0).
In the quarter-finals, they met Corinthians, and that's when things began to get crazy. Atlético Mineiro lost the 1st leg in São Paulo (0-2). At minute 4 of the 2nd leg, Corinthians opened the score: 1-0 (3-0 overall). With the away goal rule, Atlético Mineiro needed 4 goals. They scored at '23, '31 and '74. Still needing one more goal, and led by the Eu acredito (I believe) chanting from the supporters, Atlético Mineiro scored the qualifying goal at '87, from a header by Edcarlos, and advanced to the semi-finals.
Flamengo would be their adversary in the semi-finals. Believe it or not, the 1st leg ended 2-0 in Flamengo's advantage, just like in the QF. In the 2nd leg, believe it or not, Flamengo opened the score at '33, and Atlético Mineiro needed, once again, to score 4 goals - but now in a shorter time span. Atlético scored at '41, then at '57 (after this brilliant play by Luan), and once again at '81 with Dátolo. Three minutes later, at '84, Luan, the team's talisman, scored Atlético Mineiro's 4th and final-qualifying goal in another crazy football night for the Galo supporters.
The big final couldn't have a better adversary: their state rival, Cruzeiro, who were fighting for the treble. Atlético Mineiro were better in both legs, and finally won a knock-out duel without stress: 2-0 in the 1st leg, and 1-0 in the 2nd leg, so they could be crowned for the first time Copa do Brasil champions.
Probably no other Brazilian team won both continental and national cups with so much drama and in a short period of time. Of the 9 knock-out stages Atlético Mineiro played in these three campaigns, 6 of them had epic dramas:
Tournament Stage Adversary Drama
2013 Copa Libertadores QF Tijuana Goal at '92 (1st leg)
2013 Copa Libertadores SF Newell' Old Boys Goal at '95 (2nd leg)
2013 Copa Libertadores F Olimpia Goal at '86 (2nd leg)
2014 Copa do Brasil QF Corinthians 4 goals in 86mn (2nd leg)
2014 Copa do Brasil SF Flamengo 4 goals in 57mn (2nd leg)
2014 Recopa Sudamericana F Lanús Suffered goal at '93 + scored 2 in extratime (2nd leg)
2015-today
Atlético Mineiro kept performing well enough both domestically and internationally since their 2012-14 golden seasons. They finished 2nd in the 2015 Brazilian League and in the 2016 Copa do Brasil, and also reached the 2019 Copa Sudamericana semi-finals.
They are now led by Argentine coach Jorge Sampaoli, and enjoying one of the country's best footballing infrastructure and financial investment.
To this day, Atlético Mineiro has a fanbase of 5 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 19.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
submitted by majinmattossj2 to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 07:53 Samus_ Resumen de r/Uruguay - 2020-08-05

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2020-08-04 07:00 - 2020-08-05 07:00
submitted by Samus_ to ResumenDeUruguay [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 10:03 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 4/12: Grêmio

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 4/12: Grêmio (State: Rio Grande do Sul), founded in 1903

State rival: Internacional

Stadium: Olímpico Old / New

Mascot: The Musketeer

Major achievements: 1 Intercontinental Cup (1983), 3 Copa Libertadores (1983, 1995, 2017), 2 Brazilian Leagues (1981, 1996), 5 Copa do Brasil (1989, 1994, 1997, 2001, 2016)

State League titles: 38 (Against Internacional's 45)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO GREMIO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
Introduction
Even on foot we will go... That's how Grêmio's heroic anthem (2m27s music) begins. It goes on with Against all obstacles / But we sure will be / With Grêmio wherever Grêmio may be. The chills and inspiration Grêmio's anthem gives is an indication of the struggle, the guts of this team and their supporters. Before we jump to historical stories, a quick cultural context is imperative for this team.
Grêmio, as well as their state rival Internacional, is from the most southern state in Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul (GoogleMaps location). As you can see on the map, they're closer to Uruguay and Argentina than to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro - they actually share borders with these countries, and as expected, there's a lot of cultural similarities on these place's life and football. That becomes clear on their football style of much technique, but also of lots of guts and pride, intimidating adversaries who play on the coldness of these regions.
The beginnings
Grêmio was founded in 1903, in the city of Porto Alegre. They would play their first derby against Internacional in 1909, beating them 10-0, and have their first black player in 1913.
In this amateur and recently professionalized era, Grêmio would mostly play metropolitan and state leagues, due to Brazil's bigness and lack of infrastructure for a National League until 1959. Just for a comparison, the state of Rio Grande do Sul alone has the approximate size of all Italy.
The Olimpico stadium and the seven consecutive State League title streak (1954-1980)
In 1954, Grêmio inaugurated their long time dream stadium, the Olimpico, with a 38.000 public capacity.
Between 1956 and 1968, Grêmio won 12 out of 13 State League titles, notably winning 7 consecutive titles between 1962-68. They also reached the new-formed National League) semi-finals in 1959, 1963 and in 1967#Classifica%C3%A7%C3%A3o_do_quadrangular_final), being knocked off twice by the impossible Santos of Pelé. Until 1966, only the State Champions were allowed into the National League.
In 1970, Grêmio also had their first player to be part of a World Cup-winning team, namely Everaldo (LB), starter, who was honored with a golden star in Grêmio's crest.
The 1980s and the big titles - National, Continental and World champions
After a discreet 1970s decade, Grêmio shifted to great campaigns and titles in the 1980s. The Gaúchos won 1 Brazilian League, 1 Copa do Brasil, 1 Copa Libertadores, 1 Intercontinental Cup, 1 Brazilian Supercup and 6 State Leagues. They also finished 2nd in one more Brazilian League and Copa Libertadores.
The 1980s was a decade when most of Brazilian players stayed in Brazil, so the competitiveness was still very high - their moves to Italy's Serie A were usually short-timed.
Besides Grêmio, teams like Zico's Flamengo, Socrates' Corinthians, Dinamite's Vasco, Cerezo's Atletico Mineiro and Fluminense were among the best squads of that time. Below, some of the great Grêmio players in the decade:
Player Period Apps Goals World Cup participations
Leão 1980-82 180 0 4 (1970, 1974, 1978, 1986)
Mazaropi 1983-90 425 0 -
PC Caju 1983 5 0 2 (1970, 1974)
Paulo Isidoro 1980-82 60 18 1 (1982)
Renato Gaucho 1980-86 179 50 1 (1990)*
Mario Sérgio 1983 1** 0 -
Baltazar 1979-82 293 130 -
Tarciso 1973-86 721 226 -
De Leon 1981-84 242 11 1 (1990)
** Mario Sergio was bought exclusively for the dispute of the 1983 Intercontinental Cup against Hamburg, in which he played greatly, helping Grêmio become Club World champions.
In the 1981 Brazilian League, Grêmio, led by Paulo Isidoro - Golden Ball of the league and their only player elected to the Best XI - met Sao Paulo in the big final. In the 1st leg, they started badly, missing a penalty and watching Sao Paulo open the score. However, with two goals from Paulo Isidoro - the 2nd one with a big mistake from great Sao Paulo GK Waldir Peres - Grêmio won the match 2-1 in the 2nd half. In the 2nd leg, Grêmio won the title after a 1-0 victory, with this beautiful goal by their topscorer Baltazar.
In 1982, Grêmio reached again the Brazilian League final, losing to Zico's Flamengo in the big final, 1-0, at home. They qualified, however, to the 1983 Copa Libertadores.
1983, Copa Libertadores and World Champions: Grêmio's greatest season
In what was their 2nd Copa Libertadores participation, Grêmio played 12 matches, with 8W-3D-1L. In the group stage, they notably got the only qualifying spot being in the same group of Flamengo. In their 1st match, 1-1, De Leon scored an important equalizer at '80, which helped Grêmio qualify one round in advance, and beat Flamengo 3-1 with no pressure in the last group match.
In the 2nd group stage phase, Grêmio topped a group that had Estudiantes and América de Cali. Their decisive match was against Estudiantes, in Argentina, and as expected there was a lot of violence in a match that ended 3-3, but with a very firm referee that sent off 4 Estudiantes players. However, the assistant referee was hurt by the supporters, as well as one Grêmio player in the half-time by the Estudiantes' forces, and also their bus driver at the end of the match who had his finger broken. Grêmio was, nevertheless, qualified to the Copa Libertadores final against Peñarol, from Uruguay.
In the 1st leg, they tied 1-1 (1mn35s video), with Peñarol equalizing at '70. Grêmio would play the 2nd leg at home, at the Olimpico, and when the match was 1-1, right-winger Renato Gaucho found a splendid cross surrounded by two Uruguayans in a tiny space, so that Cesar could score the winning goal, crowning Grêmio South American champions for the first time, being the 5th Brazilian team to achieve it.
1983 Intercontinental Cup: Grêmio Club World Champions
In the 11th December 1983, Grêmio flew to Tokyo, to play the Intercontinental Cup against the European champions, Hamburg, of the maestro Felix Magath. It was the same Hamburg team that went 36 matches undefeated that season. Renato Gaúcho opened the score with this beautiful goal, after leaving the German CB completely confused. Hamburg tied at '85 with Schröder, but Renato Gaucho scored his team's 2nd goal in extra time, securing Grêmio their first club world title, and the best season of their history.
In 1984, Grêmio reached once again the Copa Libertadores final, but this time they lost against Independiente (0-1 and 0-0).
1989-1997: when Grêmio became Brazil's "Rei de Copas" (King of Cups)
Grêmio kicked off badly in the 1990s, being relegated in the 1991 National League to serie B - being the first team from the Big12 to do so, but were promoted back in 1992.
Things would start to change in 1993, with the arrival of Luiz Felipe Scolari, the eventual international multichampion Felipão ("Big Phil"). He helped cement Grêmio as Brazil's King of Cups, with a very defensive style and two great forwards: Paulo Nunes and Jardel.
Tournament Pos. M W D L GS GC GA %
Copa do Brasil 1989 1st 9 7 2 0 25 4 +21 85%
Brazil Supercup 1990 1st 2 1 1 0 2 0 +2 67%
Copa do Brasil 1994 1st 10 5 4 1 13 6 +7 63%
Copa Libertadores 1995 1st 14 8 4 2 29 14 +15 67%
Brazilian League (with K.O stages) 1996 1st 29 14 6 9 52 34 +18 55%
Recopa Sudamericana 1996 1st 1 1 0 0 4 1 +3 100%
Copa do Brasil 1997 1st 10 5 0 5 19 12 +7 50%
Copa do Brasil 1991 2nd 10 6 4 0 12 4 +8 73%
Copa do Brasil 1993 2nd 10 4 4 2 19 12 +7 53%
Copa do Brasil 1995 2nd 10 4 2 4 12 10 +2 47%
Intercontinental Cup 1995 2nd 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 33%
Total - 106 55 28 23 187 97 +90 61%
In this period, Grêmio reached 9 major finals in Cup-style tournaments, winning 5 of them, and also winning 2 more bonus cups (Supercup and Recopa).
Highlights to their 1995 Copa Libertadores campaign, with a sonorous 5-0 against Brazilian Champions Palmeiras (3mn27s video) in the quarter-finals (though getting a historical 1-5 in the 2nd leg). They then beat Emelec and Atlético Nacional (3-1 and 1-1) in the final and Grêmio became continental champions for their 2nd time. The Paulo Nunes-Jardel duo made a mess in the tournament, specially Jardel, who was the topscorer with 12 goals (8 of them in the knock-out phase), scoring in every stage.
In November 1995, Grêmio traveled to Tokyo, for the Intercontinental Cup against Van Gaal's and Kluivert's Ajax. After a 0-0 draw with extra time, Van der Sar star shone brighter in the penalty kicks, with Ajax winning it 4-3 and becoming club world champions.
In 1996, Grêmio won their 2nd Brazilian League. Even after Jardel's departure to Porto, Felipão's Grêmio managed to beat the strong Palmeiras of Velloso, Cafu, Rincon, Luizão and Djalminha in the quarter-finals (3-1 and 0-1), then Goias, and finally Zé Roberto's Portuguesa in tense final matches (0-2 and 2-0), with reserve Ailton scoring the goal of the title at minute 84. Paulo Nunes was the topscorer of the league with 16 goals, and elected to the league's Best XI, along with his teammates Batista and Carlos Goiano.
Name Nickname Period Apps Goals Also idol at
Paulo Nunes Blond Devil 1995-97 144 70 Flamengo, Palmeiras
Jardel - 1995-96 91 81 Porto, Sporting
In 1997, now without Felipão, Grêmio won another Copa do Brasil. They notably knocked-off Portuguesa and Corinthians, before having two ties against Romario's and Savio's Flamengo in the final (0-0 and 2-2), and becoming champions on away goals. Highlights to Corinthians' Marcelinho Carioca penalty miss in the 1st SF leg and to Grêmio's "luck" in the 2nd SF leg, to this beautiful opening goal in the big final, as well as the goal of the title at '79 by Carlos Miguel. Paulo Nunes was the cup's topscorer, with 9 goals.
In the 1990s, Grêmio also won 5 State League titles out of 10.
2004-2005: New relegation and the epic-crazy-legendary Battle of the Aflitos
After a disappointing 2004, Grêmio was relegated to serie B once again.
In the final quadrangular, Grêmio needed at least a tie to guarantee themselves in 2006 Serie A, while Nautico needed a simple victory, at home, to take Grêmio's spot.
Pos. Team P M W D L GS GC GD
1 Grêmio 9 5 2 3 0 7 4 3
2 Santa Cruz 7 5 2 1 2 5 7 -2
3 Náutico 6 5 2 0 3 6 5 1
4 Portuguesa 5 5 1 2 2 8 10 -2
Bold: Qualifying to 2006 Serie A
As expected, the hostility against Grêmio was huge. Nautico is a team from the northeastern part of Brazil (hotter and more African), while Grêmio is from the most southern state of the country (colder and more European), so it was also an "interregional war".
Grêmio went there to park the bus, but Nautico had a penalty on their favor in the 1st half, which they missed.
At minute 80, Grêmio (that only had 10 players) centre-back commited a controversial penalty. A huge confusion took place, lasting 20 minutes, and 3 more Grêmio players were sent off, leaving their team with only 7 players and one penalty against them. However, in those rare magic moments of football, Grêmio's GK Gallato saved it. Grêmio still needed to hold 10 minutes with 7 players without conceding a goal, but on the next move, Anderson went through 2 adversaries and scored the winning and Serie A-qualifying goal. Unbelievable!
This story became a movie that was released in 2007, named Unbelievable - The Battle of the Aflitos.
In the following years, Grêmio quickly reestablished themselves as giants, finishing 3rd on their Serie A comeback in 2006, thus qualifying to 2007 Copa Libertadores, in which they finished 2nd, losing the final to Riquelme's Boca Juniors (0-2 and 0-3). In 2008 they finished 2nd in the Brazilian League, qualifying once again to the Copa Libertadores, in which they reached the SF, in 2009.
In the 2000s, Grêmio also won 4 State Leagues out of 10.
2010-today: Copa do Brasil and Copa Libertadores legacy
In the 2010s, Grêmio reached 5 Copa do Brasil semi-finals, winning it in 2016, when they beat Atlético Mineiro (3-1 and 1-1) in the finals.
In 2017, another special year for Grêmio: they won their 3rd Copa Libertadores. With great players such as Grohe, Geromel, Arthur and Luan, Grêmio topped their group stage and had 6W-1D-1L in the K.O. phase, against Godoy Cruz, Botafogo, Barcelona de Guyaquil and Lanús, which they beat in the final (1-0 and 2-1). Highlights to the "defense of the year" by Grohe, in the SF 1st leg, when it was 1-0 (ended 3-0 for Grêmio). Grohe also saved the team in the final 1st leg, until Cícero scored the winning goal at '82.
In the big final in Argentina, Grêmio's Fernandinho opened the score at '26, after a deep solo run from his own field and this chirurgical conclusion. At '41, Luan scored a masterpiece of a goal setting the match 2-0, and paving the way to the title. The match ended 2-1, and Grêmio were crowned South American champions for the 3rd time.
Luan scored 8 goals and was elected the best player of the tournament, and Geromel the best defender. Posteriorly, Luan, deceived with no big proposal from Europe, had a huge drop in his club performance, leaving to Corinthians in 2020.
In December, Grêmio traveled to Japan for the Club World Cup. They beat Paxuca, from Mexico, 1-0 in the extra time, with a beautiful goal from Everton Cebolinha. They lost the final 0-1 to Real Madrid, with Cristiano Ronaldo scoring at '52, from a free-kick.
Player Period Apps Goals Assists Brazil NT Caps
Grohe 2005-18 408 0 0 2
Luan 2014-19 288 75 56 2
Everton 2014- 270 69 30 14
Geromel 2014- 266 14 ? 2
Arthur 2015-18 70 6 4 20
Kannemann 2016- 166 4 ? 6 (Argentina)
Special Extra Part: the GreNal (#8th Biggest Derby in the World by FourFourTwo)
One can't write about Grêmio without dedicating an exclusive part to the biggest derby in Brazil, the GreNal (Grêmio vs. Internacional). Foreigners will usually think about FlaFlu or even Palmeiras x Corinthians, but that has become very debatable. Rio and Sao Paulo states have 4 big rivals, which means the rivalry there is more diluted, meanwhile in the Rio Grande do Sul state, there are only Grêmio and Internacional, it's Blue against Red over the entire state (which has the size of Italy), you feel like in another country (Argentina/Uruguay) because of the coldness and of the far cultural distance from the rest of the country, being more European-oriented. Their rivalry has a history of guts and ferocity, skills and violence, and is a must for any foreigner traveling to Porto Alegre.
To this day, Grêmio has a fanbase of 8 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 22.000, as of 2019. Their youth system is notable, having formed great players like Lucas Leiva, Emerson, Renato Gaucho, Ronaldinho, Anderson Polga, and more recently Douglas Costa, Arthur and Everton.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.07.23 10:46 diplohora Bruno Rezende : meus estudos para o CACD Parte IV - SUGESTÕES DE LEITURAS pt3

ESPANHOL
Para todos os idiomas, recebi boas recomendações do site http://uz-translations.net/.
Para dicionários de Espanhol-Espanhol, já recebi boas recomendações do Diccionario de la Lengua Española (Real Academía de La Lengua Española). O Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española e o Señas: Diccionario para la Enseñanza de la Lengua Española para Brasileños também são recomendados. Na internet, consulte: http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/. Para Espanhol- Português, acho que qualquer um deve valer. Na internet, o Michaelis pode ajudar (http://michaelis.uol.com.b).
Um professor recomendou-me o livro Temas de Gramática del Español como Lengua Extranjera, de Dorotea Inés Lieberman (Ed. Eudeba), só não sei se está disponível para venda no Brasil. O último Guia de Estudos que trouxe indicação de Gramáticas recomendadas para o estudo de Espanhol foi o de 2007, que sugeria:
GONZÁLEZ HERMOSO, Alfredo. Conjugar es fácil en español de España y América. Madrid, Edelsa, 1997.
REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA. Esbozo de una nueva gramática de la lengua española. Madrid, Espasa- Calpe, 1996.
REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA. Ortografía de la lengua española. Edición revisada por las Academias de la Lengua. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1996.
SECO, Manuel. Gramática esencial del español: introducción al estudio de la lengua. Madrid, Espasa- Calpe, 2001.
SILVA, Cecilia Fonseca da. Los falsos amigos en español y portugués: interferencias léxicas. Rio de Janeiro, Ao Livro Técnico, 2003.
& SILVA, Luz María Pires da. Español a través de textos: estudio contrastivo para brasileños. Rio de Janeiro, Ao Livro Técnico, 2001.
Confira, também, o site:
http://conjugador.reverso.net/conjugacion-espanol.html - para conjugação de verbos em Espanhol
Para a leitura de periódicos em Espanhol, são recomendados, por exemplo: El País (www.elpais.es), El Mundo (www.elmundo.es), La Nación (www.lanacion.com.ar) e Clarín (www.clarin.com).
FRANCÊS
Para todos os idiomas, recebi boas recomendações do site http://uz-translations.net/.
Para dicionários Francês-Francês, são recomendáveis: Le Petit Robert, Le Micro Robert e Le Petit Larousse. Na internet, consulte: . Para dicionários Francês-Português, acredito que sirvam os dicionários da Larousse, da Ática, da Michaelis e da Editora Globo. Na internet, o site da Michaelis também pode ser útil (htt)p://michaelis.uol.com.b).)
Todos os professores de Francês de que já ouvi recomendações sugerem a Grammaire Progressive du Français, disponível nos níveis Iniciante, Intermediário e Avançado. Todos os três estão disponíveis para download no “REL UnB”. A Nouvelle Grammaire Française, de Jenepin Delatour, é também recomendada.
Confira, também, os sites:
http://www.educaserve.com/index.php - 204 lições on-line gratuitas http://francoclic.mec.gov.b - disponibiliza o método “Reflets” on-line, além de vários
outros recursos relacionados à língua francesa.
http://www.leconjugueur.com/ - para conjugação de verbos em Francês
http://lepointdufle.net/ - diversos links de cursos gratuitos, de dicionários de diversos tipos e de gramáticas. Há, também, diversas referências de cultura francesa (arte, teatro, música, cinema, literatura etc.).
http://www.francaisfacile.com/ http://www.revistafrancesa.com http://linguafrancesa.wordpress.com/ http://cursodefrancesonline.blogspot.com/ http://cursofrancesgratis.blogspot.com/
Para a leitura de periódicos em Francês, são recomendados, por exemplo: Le Monde www.lemonde.fr, Libération www.liberation.fr, Le Figaro http://www.lefigaro.fr, L´Express www.lexpress.fr, Le Nouvel Observateur www.nouvelobs.com e Le Monde diplomatique www.monde-diplomatique.fr.
GEOGRAFIA
Alguns dizem que, para ir bem em Geografia, na primeira fase, basta saber três coisas: “a África est urbanizando, a indústria est desconcentrando e o Nordeste est ‘bombando’”. Obviamente, n~o é tão simples assim, mas, de todo modo, são três tópicos bastante recorrentes (além de Geografia física, ocasionalmente). Como Geografia é a matéria de menor peso na primeira fase, muitos não dão muito valor. Sugiro, entretanto, uma leitura, ainda que rápida, de alguns pontos principais (urbanização, desconcentração industrial, Geografia física). Como você verá a seguir, sugiro três livros (com a possível exclusão de um deles) como basilares para a prova de Geografia da primeira fase. É um pouco difícil dizer se determinada leitura é suficiente ou não, especialmente para uma prova como o CACD. De qualquer forma, acredito que, com essas obras, o candidato tem boas chances de ir bem na primeira fase. Para a terceira fase, não sei o que recomendar. A prova de 2011 foi meio louca, tive de juntar conhecimentos aleatórios com um toque de enrolação. Se fosse fazer o concurso novamente, não sei se perderia muito tempo estudando outra obra de Geografia, como alguma do Milton Santos, na esperança de acertar qual será a loucura da banca no próximo ano.
- Manual do Candidato: Geografia (Bertha Becker): o mais útil da obra é que ela segue a mesma divisão de conteúdos prevista no Guia de Estudos de Geografia. Isso ajuda tanto a controlar quais aspectos você já estudou e quais ainda faltam quanto a buscar esse Manual, diante da falta de determinados conteúdos em outras bibliografias, para complementar seus estudos. Uma raridade entre os manuais (possivelmente, pelo fato de o nível de cobrança de Geografia não ser tão elevado quanto o de outras disciplinas), o manual é, em geral, bastante completo. Não diria que ele é suficiente, mas é quase (a parte de “Macrodivis~o natural do espaço brasileiro”, especialmente, é muito fraca e incompleta). Eu arriscaria dizer que o Manual do Candidato: Geografia da Bertha Becker e os outros dois livros a seguir (com a possível exclusão do Oliva e Giansanti, não tão indispensável assim, embora importante em alguns aspectos) formam a trilogia sagrada para a primeira fase. Para a terceira, de uma maneira geral, uma coisa ou outra escapa ao conteúdo dessas obras, mas nada que você n~o possa completar com um “miltonsantês” aqui e uma “enrolaç~o” ali. O problema mais importante é que ficar apenas com o “mais geral” n~o é mais suficiente, e passa a ser fundamental, nos estudos para a terceira fase, consolidar e aprofundar conhecimentos. Aí, ler apenas essas obras não será, de maneira nenhuma, suficiente. Sugiro procurar artigos variados na Internet, dados disponíveis nos sites dos Ministérios (principalmente MMA e MAPA), do IBGE etc. Ler as melhores respostas dos Guias de Estudos dos últimos CACDs também pode ser (assim como para todas as demais matérias da terceira fase) importante fonte de tópicos a serem pesquisados (cuidado, apenas, para não tomar aquelas respostas como perfeitas; mesmo respostas com nota máxima possuem, às vezes, alguns erros; use-as como um panorama geral e como uma seleção de determinados tópicos e dados relevantes, aprofundando seus conhecimentos com leituras adicionais).
Obs.: cuidado, pois há outra edição mais antiga do manual, da Regina Célia Araújo (não cheguei a ter contato com esse mais antigo, mas já ouvi bons e maus comentários a respeito).
- Projeto de Ensino de Geografia - Geografia do Brasil (Demétrio Magnoli): é de Ensino Médio, mas cobre boa parte do que você precisa saber de Geografia do Brasil para o concurso. Bastante importante. Acho que não está mais sendo editado, mas pode ser encontrado em sebos. O Geografia para Ensino Médio, também do Magnoli, pode substituí-lo.
- Temas da Geografia do Brasil (Oliva e Giansanti): complementa o anterior. Recomendo leitura seletiva dessa obra (com maior atenção para a seção 5 – Os Sistemas Naturais e o Espaço Geográfico do Brasil; as outras seções também têm uma coisa ou outra mais importante, talvez valha a pena uma leitura rápida, fazendo anotações pontuais). Apenas cuidado (e isso vale tanto para o Oliva e Giansanti quanto para o Magnoli) com a atualidade dos dados fornecidos. Observem a data de publicação das obras (Oliva e Giansanti, por exemplo, é de 1999) e não levem em consideração dados que podem ter mudado de lá para cá. Quando as obras falarem, por exemplo, que “o maior produtor de soja do Brasil é o estado de xxx”, confira em outras fontes (preferencialmente, no Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento ou no Ministério do Meio Ambiente, por exemplo), para saber se os dados continuam válidos.
- Projeto de Ensino de Geografia - Geografia Geral (Magnoli): além de ajudar um pouco em Geografia (principalmente para a terceira fase, eu diria, haja vista as questões recentes sobre minérios na África ou sobre migrações internacionais, por exemplo), pode ter alguma coisa boa para Política Internacional também, mas não é imprescindível.
- O Brasil: Território e Sociedade no Início do Século XXI (Milton Santos e Maria Laura Silveira): mais importante para a terceira fase que para a primeira. De todo modo, não estudei por ele tanto por preguiça quanto por falta de tempo, e acho que não perdi muita coisa. Acho que, além de chato, é pouco objetivo.
“Miltonsantês”: ainda que n~o tenha caído recentemente nas provas da primeira fase, a Geografia de Milton Santos é fundamental para a terceira fase. Conhecer os conceitos usados pelo autor é importante não apenas porque podem ser objeto de questões na terceira fase (como o foi em 2010, em que uma questão pedia para descrever a divisão do Brasil proposta por Milton Santos e por Maria Laura Silveira), mas também porque o uso de conceitos do “miltonsantês” em todas as questões de Geografia da terceira fase enriquece sua resposta e agrada à banca examinadora (desde que usado com prudência). Possibilidades são procurar na internet artigos que tratem do assunto, além, é claro, da leitura (não muito prazerosa, eu diria) de livros do autor. Na obra Território Brasileiro: usos e abusos (Maria Adelia Aparecida Souza) e no supracitado Temas da Geografia do Brasil (Oliva e Giansanti), segundo recomendações que recebi, há bons resumos dos conceitos do autor. Para a primeira fase, não é necessário preocupar-se muito com isso (o que caiu de Milton Santos na primeira fase de 2011, por exemplo, seria facilmente depreendido da interpretação do texto apresentado na questão). Caso pretenda fazer cursinho preparatório, é bem provável que o professor dê isso em sala. No “REL UnB”, h diversos resumos de vrios livros do autor.
- A Condição Pós-Moderna (David Harvey) – ler apenas capítulo 9 (“Do Fordismo { Acumulaç~o Flexível”).
As seguintes obras foram indicadas por diferentes fontes, mas não cheguei a lê-las. De qualquer forma, ficam as sugestões.
- A Nova Dinâmica da Agricultura Brasileira (José Graziano): ler o primeiro capítulo.
- A Ordem Ambiental Internacional (Wagner Costa Ribeiro): li só o resumo, que está disponível no “REL UnB”.

- Atlas da Mundialização

- Atlas de La Mondialisation (Sciences Po)
- Atlas do Brasil (Hervé Théry) – já me foi muito bem recomendado, com as ressalvas de que a parte de crescimento não é tão boa e de que há muitos dados desatualizados.

- Atlas Nacional do Brasil (IBGE)

- Brasil: uma Nova Potência Regional na Economia-mundo (Bertha Becker e Cláudio Egler)
- Continente em Chamas: Globalização e Território na América Latina (Maria Laura Silveira) – destaque para o capítulo 3.
- Contribuição para a Gestão da Zona Costeira do Brasil (Antonio Carlos Robert Moraes)
- Geografia Humana, Sociedade, Espaço e Ciência Social (Derek Gregory, Ron Martin e Graham Smith) - cap. 1, 2, 4 e 8.
- Geografia: Conceitos e Temas (capítulo de B. Becker: "Geopolítica na Virada do Milênio")
- Geografia: Pequena História Crítica (A.C. Robert Moraes): não li, mas me recomendaram como boa alternativa para o estudo de história do pensamento geográfico.

- L’Atlas du Monde Diplomatique

- Metamorfoses do Espaço Habitado (Milton Santos): segundo recomendações, pode ser boa introduç~o ao “miltonsantês”.
- Novas Geopolíticas (José William Vezentini): sobre a história do pensamento geopolítico.
- O Corpo da Pátria (Demétrio Magnoli): não passei nem perto, mas joguei o título do livro em uma questão louca da terceira fase, como se eu soubesse alguma coisa que o Magnoli fala nele. Até que deu mais ou menos certo.
- Por uma outra Globalização (Milton Santos): não li. Meu professor no cursinho repetiu tantas vezes os conceitos do “miltonsantês” que eu senti que, para entender um pouco o pensamento do autor, não tinha de ler as obras. Se você tiver acesso a bons resumos e/ou a relações de conceitos do “miltonsantês”, acredito que a obra pode ser dispensvel. H resumo no “REL UnB”.
Várias fontes na Internet pode, também, ser úteis, como as páginas do governo federal (Portal Brasil: PAC - http://www.brasil.gov.bpac; Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - http://www.agricultura.gov.b; Ministério do Meio Ambiente - http://www.mma.gov.bsitio/; Ministério da Integração Nacional - http://www.integracao.gov.b etc.).
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2020.07.20 09:59 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 2/12: Vasco

Previous episodes: Flamengo
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Gremio, Botafogo, Atletico Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, Sao Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 2/12: Vasco (State: Rio de Janeiro), founded in 1898

State rivals: Flamengo, Fluminense and Botafogo

Stadium: São Januário (Capacity: 21.880)

Mascot: The Admiral

Major achievements: 1 South American Championship of Champions (1948), 1 Copa Libertadores (1998), 4 Brazilian Leagues (1974, 1989, 1997, 2000), 1 Copa do Brasil (2011), 1 Copa Mercosul (2000)

State League titles: 24 (Against Flamengo's 36, Fluminense's 31, Botafogo's 21)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO VASCO'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to India in 1498, and Vasco, the Rio de Janeiro sports club founded by Portuguese immigrants in 1898
Vasco da Gama (1460 or 1469-1524) was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea, creating the first link between Europe and Asia by an ocean route, and marking the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.
Before Da Gama, other explorers had reached South Africa, but failed in discovering the eastern part of the African continent. Da Gama and his 170 men, however, went beyond the Cape of Good Hope as you can see in his sea route, and made it to India, thanks to the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid he met in Kenya, who led them there.
In 1898 Rio de Janeiro, a group of Portuguese immigrants founded this sports club in Vasco da Gama's honor, 400 years after he had reached India and changed the world: his sea route to India would be honored with a diagonal white stripe in Vasco's crest, with a black background color referring to the unknown seas of the Orient, and a red Cross, dedicated to the religious Order of Christ.
The Football Club and the pioneers against racism
As most Rio de Janeiro sports club of the late 1890s, rowing was Vasco's first sporting activity, until a football department was created in 1915, so they could start at the 3rd division of the Rio de Janeiro State League (Carioca League), until they reached the 1st division in 1923.
However, their great football results at their first season in the Carioca 1st division would be overshadowed by elite club's protests against their black, brown, portuguese and even white, but poor, players. To avoid playing Vasco multicultural players, elitist and racist clubs of the time (like their rivals Flamengo, Fluminense and Botafogo) decided to form a parallel league, without Vasco, which would nevertheless last only one season.
Since Brazil's national league would only be created in 1959, the State Leagues were the main tournaments, where most Brazilian great players would be formed and then sent to the National Team. Vasco would be facing 3 main rivals at the State League, namely Flamengo, Fluminense and Botafogo, and also very traditional teams and World Cup feeders like Bangu, América and São Cristóvão. So, please, be respectful about the Brazilian State Leagues, because they were a big deal back then, and so it was until the 1980s. In the 1920s and 1930s, Vasco managed to win 5 State League titles, and provided Brazil with 7 players for the 1930, 1934 and 1938 World Cups.
1940s: the Victory Express
The first big era of Vasco came in the 1940s: between 1945 and 1952 they won 5 State League titles (3 of them unbeaten), and very notably the South American Championship of Champions in 1948, the direct and official precussor of the iconic Copa Libertadores, created in 1960, and also the inspirer of the European Cup, created in 1955. Vasco represented Brazil as the Rio de Janeiro State League champions of 1947, and played against the national champions of Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, in a round-robin system, all matches taking place in Santiago, Chile.
1948 South American Championship of Champions
Dates Matches
14/02 Vasco 2-1 Litoral/BOL
18/02 Vasco 4-1 Nacional/URU
25/02 Vasco 4-0 Deportivo Municipal/PER
28/02 Vasco 1-0 Emelec/ECU
08/03 Vasco 1-1 Colo-Colo/CHI
14/03 Vasco 0-0 River Plate/ARG
Vasco would face the 23 year old Di Stefano's River Plate in the last match, needing a draw to be crowned champions. In the first half, Vasco had a legitimate goal disallowed, and at the end of the second half, a penalty was given in River Plate's favor, but Labruna's shot was saved by goalkeeper Barbosa, thus guaranteeing Vasco's first continental trophy. Two years later in 1950, however, Barbosa would fall in disgrace after conceding the 2nd and World Cup-winning goal to Uruguay at minute 79, in a full Maracanã with 200.854 spectators - even if it wasn't really Barbosa's fault (28s video).
According to ClubWorldRankings.com, Vasco was the 2nd best team in the world in the 1940s, second only to the Italians of Torino. However, it is important to remember that European football was partially suspended in this decade due to the 2nd World War.
The show must go on! Vasco 4-3 Real Madrid, Vasco 7-2 Barcelona, and more (1957/58)
In the 1950s, with the addition of eventual World Cup stars Vavá and Bellini, Vasco's State League title finally came in 1956, after 4 years.
Regarded as South America's best team, Vasco was invited to prestigious friendly tournaments in France and Spain, in 1957. Vasco won the Tournoi de Paris against Di Stefano's, Gento's and Kopa's Real Madrid in the final, at a full Parc des Princes with 40.000 spectators in Paris, France. They beat them 4-3, with Vavá scoring once. French newspaper France Soir would report that "Real Madrid isn't the world's best team. About that, speak with Vasco". Some of the match highlights (including a struggle at 2-2) can be seen here (2mn39s video).
This South American victory inspired UEFA and Conmebol to create the Intercontinental Cup in 1960, in order to test the European champions against their South American counterparts.
Vasco would then win the Tereza Herrera, beating Bilbao 4-2, with 2 goals from Vavá.
Ten days later, a sonorous 7-2 against Copa del Rey champions, Barcelona, at Les Corts, Barça's former stadium. According to this Catalan newspaper's art, it was a racial football lesson from the black brazilians. Vavá scored twice.
In 1958, Vasco finally won the prestigious interstate Rio-Sao Paulo tournament in 1958, after finishing 2nd four times, and notably beating Pele's Santos 1-0. They also won the 1958 State League.
Vasco and Brazil World Cups in the 1950s
Vasco also had their share in great World Cup campaigns from Brazil, notably the trophy-winning one in 1958. In the table below you can see all World Cup players provided from Vasco to Brazil in 1950 and 1958, notably Ademir in 1950, and the 1958 champions Bellini (captain) and Vavá (2nd topscorer, with 5 goals).
World Cup Position Player Caps Goals
1950 GK Barbosa 17 0
1950 DF Augusto 20 1
1950 MF Danilo 27 10
1950 FW Ademir 39 31
1950 FW Chico 21 8
1950 FW Alfredo 4 1
1950 MF Ely 19 0
1950 FW Maneca 6 2
1958 DF Bellini (c) 51 0
1958 DF Orlando 30 0
1958 FW Vavá 23 14
The Roberto Dinamite Era (1971-1992)
This man's name speaks for himself. Dinamite numbers are mental: he scored 708 goals in 1110 matches for Vasco. He's the only brazilian player, alongside Pelé and Rogério Ceni, with more than 1000 matches for the same team in Brazil.
Dinamite played in a very stacked Brazilian League: names like Rivellino, Falcão, Zico, Sócrates, Cerezo, Careca, Bebeto, Romario, were spread in many different teams, making things more difficult to all of them. He was however able to win one Brazilian League in 1974, notably beating Pele's Santos, Falcao's Internacional and Dirceu's Cruzeiro on the finals, and also collect 5 State Leagues during his 19 seasons at Vasco. He was the Serie A topscorer in 2 editions and elected to the Best XI three times (1979/81/84). His best goalscoring season was 1981, when he scored 62 goals, and he is, to this day, the highest topscorer of the Brazilian Serie A, with 190 goals.
Dinamite would be part of the Brazil NT at the 1978 and 1982 World Cups. He didn't play in 1982, but found his way into the starting 11 in 1978: he had his first chance in the third and decisive group game against Austria, scored the winning goal (47s video), and played all 3 matches on the next group stage, scoring 2 more goals, both against Poland. Brazil lost to Argentina on the goal difference (8-5), and was eliminated in a very controversial way, due to Peru very strangely losing (1mn46s video) 0-6 to Argentina in the last group match.
A young named Romario
If Brazil still couldn't win a World Cup since the mighty 1970 team, and not even a Copa America since 1949, Vasco had been upbringing the solution for both problems. Not only he had a name, but also a provoking character: Romario made his professional debut in 1985, at the age of 19. With only 1.67m, Romario -nicknamed Shorty- played as a centre-forward, and scored 139 goals in 196 matches in the 4 seasons he spent at Vasco (1985-88), before being sold to PSV for US$ 6 million. He won, alongside Dinamite, 2 State Leagues and was Brazil's topscorer with 7 goals at their runner-up campaign at the 1988 Seoul's Olympic Games. Romario would go on to win the 1989 Copa America and the 1994 World Cup, ending Brazil's both titles drought.
Bebeto, the 1989 Brazilian League title and 3rd best player in the world
Curiously enough, both Romario and an old Dinamite left Vasco from the mid to the end of 1988: the former to PSV and the latter to Portuguesa, on a one-year loan. Without their incredible duo, Vasco bought the Flamengo and Brazil star Bebeto, who played as a forward, was 25 years old, and managed to lead Vasco to the Brazilian League title of 1989, beating Sao Paulo 1-0 (1mn10s video) in the final. Indeed, Bebeto had an outstanding 1989 season: champion and topscorer of the 1989 Copa America, elected best player in Brazil by Placar Magazine, best player in South America by El País Newspaper and 3rd best player in the world by World Soccer Magazine, beating names like Maradona, Baresi, Romario and Laudrup, but behind Gullit and Van Basten. Bebeto scored 10 goals in 18 matches for Brazil that year.
The 1990s Golden Era: the Brazilian NBA League and Vasco all-star squad
The 1990s was a great decade for almost all of Brazilian big teams, and it wasn't different with Vasco. They collected 2 continental titles, 2 Brazilian Leagues, 1 interstate Rio-Sao Paulo tournament and 4 State Leagues. In a country with at least 12 big teams, it's quite a notable achievement.
Vasco had an absurd collection of top level talent in this decade, at a time when Brazilian talents would stick around longer, or not even go to Europe. The Brazilian League was decided in play-offs, and had pretty much the north-american NBA vibes, in both matters of talent and format. The 1990s is considered the last decade of brazilian "root football", in the sense of being high-leveled and with an oldschool attitude. In the table below, a list with the notable players that have been at Vasco in the 1990s.
Player Years Apps Goals Brazil NT caps WC participations Europe
Romario 2000 72 66 70 2 (1990, 1994) Barcelona, PSV
Bebeto 1989-92 115 59 76 3 (1990, 1994, 1998) La Coruña
Edmundo 1992, 96-97, 99-00 146 114 39 1 (1998) Fiorentina, Napoli
Juninho Pernambucano 1995-01 295 56 40 1 (2006) Lyon
Juninho Paulista 2000-01 87 18 50 1 (2002) Middlesbrough, Atlético Madrid
Roberto Dinamite 1992 24 10 38 2 (1978, 1982) Barcelona
Bismarck 1987-93 185 128 13 1 (1990) -
Valdir 1992-94 143 71 - - Benfica
Dener (deceased at 23) 1994 17 5 2 - -
Luizão 1998 71 38 17 1 (2002) La Coruña, Hertha Berlin
Donizete 1998-00 110 34 9 - Benfica
Viola 1999-01 116 32 10 1 (1994) Valencia
Carlos Germano 1990-99 632 0 9 1 (1998) -
Ricardo Rocha 1994-95 94 3 42 2 (1990, 1994) Real Madrid
Mauro Galvão 1997-00 88 6 26 2 (1986, 1990) Lugano
Junior Baiano 2000-01 48 3 25 1 (1998) Werder Bremen
Felipe 1996-02 268 42 7 - Galatasaray
Amaral 1999-00 16 1 38 - Fiorentina, Benfica, Parma
Ramon 1996-00 176 61 6 - Bayer Leverkusen
Evair 1997 36 12 11 - Atalanta
Euller 2000-01 83 28 7 - -
Odvan 1997-01 280 13 12 - -
Zé Maria 1999 34 4 25 - Parma, Perugia, Internazionale, Levante
Special note to Dener, Brazilian gem that died in a car accident at 23. Maradona's reaction in this Vasco-Newell's Old Boys friendly in 1994 says it all. Dener got a standing ovation from the entire Argentine public when subbed off, and from Maradona aswell, who made sure to greet him at the end of the match.
Vasco began the 1990s winning an unprecedented three consecutive State League titles (1992/93/94) in the last years of Roberto Dinamite, Bebeto and Bismarck. The Rio de Janeiro State League of 1992 saw the upcoming of folkloric forward Valdir Moustache and of a future world class player, Edmundo, who scored 24 goals in 32 matches in his first professional season at the age of 20, also having his first chance at the Brazil NT.
It would be between 1997 and 2000 that Vasco big campaigns and titles would take place. In the 1997 Brazilian League, led by a fierce Edmundo who demolished the tournament with 29 goals in 28 matches, winning the title and the Brazilian Golden Ball. The final was against a stacked Palmeiras, that had 5 World Cup-winning players, and specially the number 10 Alex, the wronged. After two 0-0 ties, Vasco secured their 3rd Brazilian League title.
The Eternal Glory: the 1998 Copa Libertadores
In 1998, year of the club's centenary, Vasco won the State League, and also their 2nd continental trophy, the epic 1998 Copa Libertadores. Vasco went unbeaten in the knockout stage (5W-3D), defeating Dida's Cruzeiro, Ronaldinho's Gremio and the Argentines from River Plate before facing Barcelona de Guyaquil in the final. Highlights to the semi-final between Vasco and River Plate: in the first match in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil NT goalkeeper Carlos Germano made the difference with a very difficult save from Gallardo's (current River Plate coach) free-kick, thus securing Vasco the 1-0 victory.
Epicness at its greatest would happen in the 2nd leg between Vasco and River Plate, at the Monumental de Nuñez stadium, in Argentina. With River Plate winning it 1-0 and taking the match to extra time, at minute 81, Juninho Pernambucano scored this magnificent goal (59s video) from his trademark style, the free-kick. It would be considered, until today, the most important and memorable goal in the whole history of Vasco da Gama.
In the final against Barcelona de Guyaquil, Donizete opened the score with a tremendous shot (8s video) from the outside of the area, and future World Cup-winner Luizão closed it 2-0 (11s video) at home. The second match was a walk in the park, with the Cariocas winning 2-0 (first with Luizão, and then with Donizete) at half-time, and 2-1 at the end of match, therefore winning Vasco's first Copa Libertadores, and second continental trophy, after the South American Championship of Champions in 1948.
Victories against Manchester United and Santos, but huge deceptions against Real Madrid, Corinthians, Palmeiras and Flamengo
Despite dominating Real Madrid in the 2nd half, Vasco lost 1-2 to them at the 1998 Intercontinental Cup in Tokyo. Highlights to Juninho Pernambucano and his beautiful equalizer, at minute 56.
After a great centenary year, Vasco didn't perform as expected in 1999, winning only an interstate Rio-Sao Paulo tournament, beating Santos in the final. In 2000, Vasco finished 2nd three times in the first 6 months: in the Club World Cup to Corinthians, in the interstate Rio-Sao Paulo tournament to Palmeiras, and in the State League to Flamengo. Highlights to Edmundo amazing play and goal (1m05s video) in their 3-1 win against Manchester United in the Club World Cup group stage.
The greatest comeback in Brazilian football history: the 2000 Copa Mercosul final, and the 2000 Brazilian League title
After demolishing River Plate in the Copa Mercosul (2nd tier continental cup) semi-finals, Vasco would meet again with Palmeiras, that they had beaten in the 1997 Brazilian League final, but got knocked off by them of the 1999 Copa Libertadores in the ro16.
First match, in Rio de Janeiro, Vasco 2-0 Palmeiras. Second match, in São Paulo, Vasco 0-1 Palmeiras.
Third match forced, again in São Paulo, at the Palestra Itália stadium, December the 20th.
Both teams needed this title to save their traumatic seasons. While Vasco had already lost 3 finals in the same year, Palmeiras had lost the Libertadores finals to Riquelme's Boca Juniors, in the penalties, in what could have been their first back-to-back titles in the tournament.
The match started, and well, at half-time, Palmeiras were already leading it 3-0. In the second half, with 2 penalty goals from Romario at 59 and 68, Vasco were back to it, but had their CB Junior Baiano sent off at 77. Nevertheless, Juninho Paulista tied it at 85, and Romario completed his hat-trick with this goal at minute 93, Vasco thus being crowned the 2000 Copa Mercosul champions.
The season, however, wasn't finished yet. Vasco played the 1st leg of the Brazilian League final on the 27th December, ending in a 1-1 draw against Sao Caetano. After 150 people got hurt in an accident in the 2nd leg on the 30th December, the big final was rescheduled to January 18th 2001. On this day, Vasco beat Sao Caetano 3-1, with goals from Juninho Pernambucano, Jorginho Paulista and Romario. It was the 4th Brazilian League title in Vasco's history, and the end of a glorious era.
2001-today
Unfortunately, Vasco has been through more downs than ups since then, being relegated 3 times to the Serie B (2008/13/15), a negative record among the Brazilian big teams. The only seasons they've been able to replicate their glorious days were in 2011/2012, when they won their first Copa do Brasil in 2011, finished 2nd in the 2011 Brazilian League, reached the semi-finals of the 2011 Copa Sudamericana (continental 2nd tier cup) and also the quarter-finals of the 2012 Copa Libertadores.
To this day, Vasco has the 5th largest fanbase in Brazil, with around 10 million supporters spread across the country, and a stadium attendance average of 18.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.07.16 09:52 Cicero1982 Your Pre Market Brief for 07/16/2020

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